Peri-Urbanism in Globalizing India: A Study of Pollution, Health and Community Awareness
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Ghaziabad and Karhera: Context and Demographics
3.2. Transformations and Pollution in Karhera
3.3. Agriculture in a Rapidly Urbanizing Context
Carrot and wheat will take a minimum of 4 months to mature. But in the same time spinach grows throughout year and it takes hardly takes one month, now see this is one kiyari (plant bed), and in this kiyari the spinach is matured now. We will cut this and at the same time in the very next kiyari we sow another spinach. So it’s easy and it will work and carry on like this. It does not need much physical work, there is no need of plough the field, just give water, put the seed in or spread the seeds into the field. That’s all it needs.
3.4. Environmental Pollution
For the villagers Hindon happens to be a very good river. We used to drink water from Hindon. We used to take bath also. Sometimes while working in the fields we used to even drink water. The water of Hindon used to be so clean that you can easily see any coin falling there. However, with the coming of the industries, the river water started to become dirty. The drains of the cities were connected to Hindon; the drains of the factories also were connected. Till what level would the river bear this pollution?
Diabetes, cancer, high [blood] pressure can be seen more [frequently]. There is a factory at the vicinity of this village [referring to a dye factory which colors jeans and/or a rubber factory which burns rubber]. The smoke from this factory spreads into the village.
4. Discussion: Peri-Urban Living
4.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Peri-Urban Living
Where would we get money, how would we look after our children? Our land in Bihar is barren, how could we do cultivation? Simple sewing does not give you a yield and good harvest. You need water and fertilizer to get a good yield. At least here my husband can work in the factory. I work as an agricultural laborer on the land of the villagers.
4.2. Precarity and Lack of Community in Peri-Urban Karhera
Conflicts of Interest
- Brook, R.M.; Purushothoman, S.; Hunshal, C.S. Changing Frontiers: The Peri-urban Interface Hubli–Dharwad, India; Books for Change: Bangalore, India, 2003; p. 146. [Google Scholar]
- Narain, V.; Anand, P.; Banerjee, P. Periurbanization in India: A Review of the Literature and Evidence; Report for the Project—Rural to Urban Transitions and the Peri-urban Interface; SaciWATERs: Andhra Pradesh, India, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Mehta, L.; Karpouzoglou, T. Limits of policy and planning in Peri-urban waterscapes: The case of Ghaziabad, Delhi, India. Habitat Int. 2015, 48, 159–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dupont, V. Conflicting stakes and governance in the peripheries of large Indian metropolises—An introduction. Cities 2007, 24, 89–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Narain, V.; Nischal, S. The peri-urban interface in ShahpurKhurd and Karnera, India. Environ. Urban. 2007, 19, 261–273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Obrist, B.; Tanner, M.; Harpham, T. Engaging anthropology in urban health research: Issues and prospects. Anthropol. Med. 2003, 10, 361–371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Corburn, J.; Karanja, I. Informal settlements and a relational view of health in Nairobi, Kenya: Sanitation, gender and dignity. Health Promot. Int. 2016, 31, 258–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Priya, R.; Bisht, R.; Randhawa, P.; Arora, M.; Dolley, J.; McGranahan, G.; Marshall, F. Local Environmentalism in Peri-Urban Spaces in India: Emergent Ecological Democracy? STEPS Working Paper 96; STEPS Centre: Brighton, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Marshall, F.; Waldman, L.; MacGregor, H.; Mehta, L.; Randhawa, P. On the Edge of Sustainability: Perspectives on Peri-urban Dynamics; STEPS Working Paper 35; STEPS Centre: Brighton, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Ravetz, J.; Fertner, C.; Nielsen, T.S. The dynamics of peri-urbanization. In Peri-urban Futures: Scenarios and Models for Land Use Change in Europe; Nilsson, K., Pauleit, S., Bell, S., Aalbers, C., Sick Nielsen, T.A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Dupont, V. Peri-urban dynamics: Population, habitat and environment on the peripheries of large Indian metropolises: An introduction. In Peri-urban Dynamics: Population, Habitat and Environment on the Peripheries of Large Indian Metropolises: A Review of Concepts and General Issues; Dupont, V., Ed.; CSH (CHS Occasional Paper): New Delhi, India, 2005; pp. 3–20. ISSN 0972-3579. [Google Scholar]
- McCormick, S. Mobilizing Science: Movements, Participation and the Remaking of Knowledge; Temple University Press: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Kroll-Smith, S.; Floyd, H.H. Bodies in Protest: Environmental Illness and the Struggle over Medical Knowledge; New York University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Corburn, J. Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice; The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Gibbs, L. Citizen activism for environmental health: The growth of a powerful new grassroots health movement. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 2002, 584, 97–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Conde, M. Activism mobilising science. Ecol. Econ. 2014, 105, 67–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kaperson, R.E.; Kasperson, J.X. Hidden hazards. In The Social Contours of Risk: Volume I: Publics, Risk Communication and the Social Amplification of Risk; Kaperson, R.E., Kasperson, J.X., Eds.; Earthscan: London, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Shriver, T.E.; Adams, A.E.; Messer, C.M. Power, quiescence, and pollution: The suppression of environmental grievances. Soc. Curr. 2014, 1, 275–292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Adams, A.E.; Shriver, T.E. Challenging extractive industries: How political context and targets influence tactical choice. Sociol. Perspect. 2016, 59, 892–909. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Auyero, J.; Swistun, D.A. Flammable: Environmental Suffering in an Argentine Shantytown; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Malin, S. When Is “Yes to the Mill” Environmental Justice? Interrogating Sites of Acceptance in Response to Energy Development; Analyse & Kritik: Hamburg, Germany, 2014; Volume 36, pp. 263–286. [Google Scholar]
- Malin, S.A.; DeMaster, K.T. A Devil’s Bargain: Rural Environmental Injustices and Hydraulic Fracturing on Pennsylvania’s Farms. J. Rural Stud. 2016, 47, 278–290. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mariwah, S.; Drangert, J.O. Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in Peri-urban agriculture in Ghana. Waste Manag. Res. 2011, 29, 815–822. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Douglas, I. Environmental change in Peri-Urban areas and human and ecosystem health. Geogr. Compass 2008, 2, 1095–1137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Obrist, B.; Van Eeuwijk, P.; Weiss, M.G. Health anthropology and urban health research. Anthropol. Med. 2003, 10, 267–274. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Randhawa, P.; Marshall, F. Policy transformations and translations: Lessons for sustainable water management in Peri-urban Delhi, India. Environ. Plan. C Gov. Policy 2014, 32, 93–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saxena, A. Perspectives in Industrial Geography: A Case Study of an Industrial City of Uttar Pradesh; Concept Publishing: New Dehli, India, 1989. [Google Scholar]
- Sharan, A.; Prasad, A.B. Peri-urban Sustainability: A Case Study of Ghaziabad’s Trans-Hindon Area; Unpublished STEPS Peri-Urban Project Report; Sarai: New Delhi, India, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Srinivasan, J.T.; Reddy, V.R. Impact of irrigation water quality on human health: A case study in India. Ecol. Econ. 2009, 68, 2800–2807. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Midmore, D.J.; Jansen, H.G.P. Supplying vegetables to Asian cities: Is there a case for Peri-urban production? Food Policy 2003, 28, 13–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sharma, R.K.; Agrawal, M.; Marshall, F. Heavy Metal Contamination of soil and vegetables grown in suburban areas of Varanasi India. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2007, 66, 258–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Marshall, F.; De Lintelo, D.; Bhupal, D.S.; Singh, R.; Mukherjee, N.; Sen, C.; Poole, N.; Agrawal, M.; Agarwal, R.; Singh, S.D. Heavy Metal Contamination of Vegetables in Delhi. Available online: http://r4d.dfid.gov.uk/pdf/outputs/r7530a.pdf (accessed on 26 August 2016).
- Mehta, L.; Allouche, J.; Nicol, A.; Walnycki, A. Global environmental justice and the right to water: The case of Peri-urban Cochabamba and Delhi. Geoforum 2014, 54, 158–166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zoller, H.M. Communicating health: Political risk Narratives in an environmental health campaign. J. Appl. Commun. Res. 2012, 40, 20–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jones, R.E. Examining linkages between race, environmental concern, health, and justice in a highly polluted community of color. J. Black Stud. 2006, 36, 473–496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cohen, A.; Lopez, A.; Malloy, N.; Morello-Frosch, R. Our environment, our health: A community-based participatory environmental health survey in Richmond, California. Health Educ. Behav. 2012, 39, 198–209. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Shriver, T.E.; Webb, G.R. Rethinking the scope of environmental injustice: Perceptions of health hazards in a rural native American community exposed to carbon black. Rural Sociol. 2009, 74, 270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gee, G.C.; Payne-Sturges, D.C. Environmental health disparities: A framework integrating psychosocial and environmental concepts. Environ. Health Perspect. 2004, 112, 1645–1653. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sajjad, H.; Jyoti; Uddin, R. Exploring water quality index and risk on quality of life in an industrial area: A case from Ghaziabad City, India. Int. J. Environ. Monit. Anal. 2014, 2, 65–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Allen, A.; Dávila, J.D.; Hofmann, P. Governance of Water and Sanitation Services for the Peri-urban Poor: A Framework for Understanding and Action in Metropolitan Regions; Development Planning Unit; University College: London, UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Priya, R. Towards health security for women and children: Exploring debates and options. In Health Security for All-Challenges and Possibilities; Prasad, S., Sathyamala, C., Eds.; Institute of Human Development: New Delhi, India, 2006; pp. 328–352. [Google Scholar]
- Priya, R.; Sathyamala, C. Contextualising AIDS and human development: Long-term illness and death among adults of Low Caste Labouring Groups in India. AIDS Care 2007, 19, S25–S43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rai, S. NGT Notice to Centre, West UP on River Pollution. Available online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/meerut/NGT-notice-to-Centre-west-UP-on-river-pollution/articleshow/45222002.cms (accessed on 29 May 2015).
- Kumar, L. Excess Arsenic and Fluoride in Ghaziabad Groundwater: NGO. Available online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/noida/Excess-arsenic-and-fluoride-in-Ghaziabad-groundwater-NGO/articleshow/46349431.cms (accessed on 28 May 2015).
- Ujala, A. (Translation) Pollution can Lead to Unborn Baby, Mental Disabilities. Available online: http://delhincr.amarujala.com/news/ghaziabad-news-ncr/the-fetus-may-be-increasing-pollution-mental-disabilities-hindi-news/ (accessed on 9 August 2016).
- Karpouzoglou, T. “Our Power Rests in Numbers”. The Role of Expert-Led Policy Processes in Addressing Water Quality: The Case of Peri-urban Areas in the National Capital Region of Delhi, India; University of Sussex: Brighton, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Das, V. Affliction: Health, Disease, Poverty; Fordham University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Ruet, J.; Gambiez, M.; Lacour, E. Private appropriation of resource: Impact of Peri-urban Farmers selling water to chennai metropolitan water board. Cities 2007, 24, 110–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kennedy, L. Regional industrial policies driving Peri-urban dynamics in Hyderabad, India. Cities 2007, 24, 95–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Waldman, L.; Bisht, R.; Saharia, R.; Kapoor, A.; Rizvi, B.; Hamid, Y.; Arora, M.; Chopra, I.; Sawansi, K.T.; Priya, R.; Marshall, F. Peri-Urbanism in Globalizing India: A Study of Pollution, Health and Community Awareness. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 980. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090980
Waldman L, Bisht R, Saharia R, Kapoor A, Rizvi B, Hamid Y, Arora M, Chopra I, Sawansi KT, Priya R, Marshall F. Peri-Urbanism in Globalizing India: A Study of Pollution, Health and Community Awareness. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(9):980. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090980Chicago/Turabian Style
Waldman, Linda, Ramila Bisht, Rajashree Saharia, Abhinav Kapoor, Bushra Rizvi, Yasir Hamid, Meghana Arora, Ima Chopra, Kumud T. Sawansi, Ritu Priya, and Fiona Marshall. 2017. "Peri-Urbanism in Globalizing India: A Study of Pollution, Health and Community Awareness" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, no. 9: 980. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090980