Next Article in Journal
Mini-Review: The Contribution of Intermediate Phenotypes to GxE Effects on Disorders of Body Composition in the New OMICS Era
Next Article in Special Issue
Benefits of Multidimensional Measures of Child Well Being in China
Previous Article in Journal
Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Assessment of the Food and Nutrition Security Status of Weaned 7–12 Months Old Children in Rural and Peri-Urban Communities of Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1076;

Poverty Dynamics and Academic Trajectories of Children of Immigrants

Silver School of Social Work, New York University, 1 Washington Square North, New York, NY 10003, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poverty and Child Well-Being)
Full-Text   |   PDF [391 KB, uploaded 16 September 2017]


Using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K), we investigated the relationship between poverty and academic trajectories for children in immigrant families in the United States. We used family socioeconomic status (SES) which considers parental education, parental occupation, and family income to define poverty in correspondence with the U.S. federal poverty threshold. Three dimensions of poverty were examined including depth (i.e., not-poor, near-poor, poor or extreme poor), stability (i.e., continuously or intermittently), and duration (i.e., for how many times in poverty). Our results indicated that living in poverty, particularly when it was extreme, volatile, and for long spell could compromise children’s reading and math achievements during the first nine schooling years. Children of immigrants were doing as well as, if not better than, children of native-borns in certain areas (i.e., math) or in facing of certain pattern of poverty (i.e., long-spell). However, deep poverty and volatile changes in family SES could compromise academic achievements for children of immigrants throughout their first nine years of schooling, a period holds important key to their future success. Implications to practice and policy as well as future directions were discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: academic trajectories; children of immigrants; ECLS-K; poverty dynamics academic trajectories; children of immigrants; ECLS-K; poverty dynamics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Han, W.-J. Poverty Dynamics and Academic Trajectories of Children of Immigrants. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1076.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top