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A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools

1
College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
2
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Farrukh Ahmad
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040442
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: WASH; school; developing countries; costing; financing; cost WASH; school; developing countries; costing; financing; cost
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MDPI and ACS Style

McGinnis, S.M.; McKeon, T.; Desai, R.; Ejelonu, A.; Laskowski, S.; Murphy, H.M. A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040442

AMA Style

McGinnis SM, McKeon T, Desai R, Ejelonu A, Laskowski S, Murphy HM. A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(4):442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040442

Chicago/Turabian Style

McGinnis, Shannon M., Thomas McKeon, Richa Desai, Akudo Ejelonu, Stanley Laskowski, and Heather M. Murphy 2017. "A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, no. 4: 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040442

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