Next Article in Journal
Acceptable Risk Analysis for Abrupt Environmental Pollution Accidents in Zhangjiakou City, China
Previous Article in Journal
Developing a Water Quality Index (WQI) for an Irrigation Dam
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 442;

A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools

College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Farrukh Ahmad
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1240 KB, uploaded 26 April 2017]   |  


Despite the success of recent efforts to increase access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) globally, approximately one-third of schools around the world still lack adequate WASH services. A lack of WASH in schools can lead to the spread of preventable disease and increase school absences, especially among women. Inadequate financing and budgeting has been named as a key barrier for integrating successful and sustainable WASH programs into school settings. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge around the costs of WASH components as well as financing models that could be applied to WASH in schools. Results show a lack of information around WASH costing, particularly around software elements as well as a lack of data overall for WASH in school settings as compared to community WASH. This review also identifies several key considerations when designing WASH budgets or selecting financing mechanisms. Findings may be used to advise future WASH in school programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: WASH; school; developing countries; costing; financing; cost WASH; school; developing countries; costing; financing; cost

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

McGinnis, S.M.; McKeon, T.; Desai, R.; Ejelonu, A.; Laskowski, S.; Murphy, H.M. A Systematic Review: Costing and Financing of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 442.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top