Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Setting
2.2. Study Design
2.3. Population and Sample
2.4. Data Collection Tools and Procedures
2.5. Data Analysis
2.6. Definition of Terms
- Resilience: the capacity of people and systems to mitigate, adapt to and recover and learn from recurrent droughts in a manner that reduces vulnerability and increases wellbeing .
- Adaptive strategies are defined as those methods (e.g., Cattle segregation, enclosing grazing land) used by communities to manage the impacts of recurrent droughts and have positive effects on community’s and system resilience to reduce long term vulnerability and improve wellbeing.
- Coping strategies are short term reactions to the effects and impacts of droughts (e.g., Charcoal production) which actually do not improve community and system resilience; they rather erode or do not lead to net improvement in resilience.
- Shock: the occurrence of recurrent droughts resulting in a significant challenge to livelihoods (e.g., death of livestock, acute food shortage).
- Stress is a slow-onset or chronic occurrence of recurrent droughts resulting in a significant challenge to livelihood (e.g., psychological distress, trauma).
- Vulnerability factors: factors (e.g., lack of skill, value placed on livestock, mind set) that make people, infrastructure, and institutions in these communities vulnerable to recurrent droughts.
2.8. Ethical Considerations
3.1. Resilience Dimensions
“In my opinion, the causes of drought can be the dry nature of our land which does not bring appropriate wind carrying rainfall.”(FGD, male)
“Our land is arid with dry weather condition. So, we do not have forest or trees. Therefore, we need to plant trees to protect the environment.”(FGD, male)
“People use cattle as their food and cloth, to send their children to school and as their means of generating household income. Drought has impoverished most of the households and degraded their capacity, worsening their Vulnerability.”(KII, Borana)
“We are less familiar to participate in other job activities.”(FGD, male)
“People have started selling their cattle and save the money in the Bank.”(KII, Borana)
3.4. Livestock Management
“We value to have as many cattle as possible.”(FGD, female)
“In Borana community people like to rear cattle more for social value than for selling and feeding themselves.”(KII, village level)
“In the previous times, there were Kalos (area enclosures) commonly used by the whole community. But these days, some people fence their own Kalo and do not allow others to use it.”(KII, Borana)
“One way is dividing the animals into different groups. We separate the weaker ones from the stronger ones during grazing. The breast feeding and non-breast feeding cows are also kept separately.”(KII, village level)
“Households who sold their cattle and purchased grains for food and those who deposited money in bank are better to withstand the effect of drought.”(FGD, male)
“If one has ten cattle he/she has to sell two or three of them and deposit the money in Bank to use for purchasing fodder. This method can be effective if accompanied by supports or aid from government.”(FGD, informal leader)
“Diversifying our livestock by replacing or increasing the number of Camels and goats is important. As compared to cattle, they better resist drought.”(FGD, female)
3.5. Infrastructure and Social Services
“This land has been lagging behind in education. There is no school around. Our children have to travel long distance if they have to get education. It is far away from here and that is also very poor one. Besides, there is problem of water. There are many cattle and they all need water, but it is insufficient. Sometimes, you fail to find any water for drinking.”(FGD, male)
“Our cows usually abort which could be due to lack of vaccination. Drought has occurred again and again devastating our cattle.”(FGD, female)
“Gradually they (cattle) lose their nails, becoming weak, skinny and emaciated due to lack of health care and drugs.”(FGD, female)
“Drought in one area affects the situation in another area by influencing prices in the local market; that is it increases grain prices but decreases livestock prices.”
“The government fixed price for each item but nobody wanted to sell in that price!”
3.6. Enabling and Support Oriented Resilience Dimensions
“They (community) always support each other through traditional mechanism; supporting one another through Busa Gonofa based on kinship or clans. Poor persons get support.”
“A person who survived with one cow should provide milk to other family; one who is left with two cows must give one cow to his brother or the other Borana. We call this method of support Busa Gonofa. If you refuse Busa Gonofa, it is crime in our laws and you face punishment.”(FGD, female)
“The number of cattle each household own has decreased as a result of drought and shortage of fodder. This has weakened our Busa Gonofa.”(FGD, female)
“The government has a role in weakening our traditional social network which we have been using for centuries. Because the government gives us aid in different forms: money or materials. These aids affect our capacities because we are depending on these aids and looking to get more of it.”(FGD, female)
“Always we have serious conflict with Garri (ethnic group) over our land, ponds and Elas. This has become a serious problem to us. We consider Ela is wife for Borana. The Elas have rules and procedures governing their use, which we call Konfi in Borana culture. It is not possible to take away one’s wife and give to someone else. Doing this leads to violent conflicts.”(FGD, female)
“People quarrel over water and grass when drought occurs. For instance, there are people from region five (Ethiopian Somali) on this side. People rob each other at this time.”(KII, Borana)
“Previously the land of this people had no boundary. Our cattle did not run shortage of grasses; there were trees, and enough wells. Now, this land has been restricted. It was taken from us and given to others in plots of five! People were made to evacuate from the land.”(FGD, male)
“Always there is conflict around boarder areas with region five (Ethiopian Somali). These boarder areas are suitable for grazing. When we move to these areas to search for pasture, the Somali attack us within two to three days of our arrival and as a result development activities are being discontinued and people are displaced from their residence. The source of this conflict is inappropriately drawn boundaries and as a result, it has been attracting inter-ethnic conflicts.”(KII, Borana)
“If we do not get back our land, we cannot think about other activities like farming, trade or development. The government is always organizing various meetings and telling us about development; teaches us about involvement in business oriented activities. But, we do not have land on which we can carry out development. Let me tell you the truth! We are always being concerned about the issue of our ponds and Elas than drought. In this regard, our voice and rights are disregarded.”(FGD, male)
3.7. Outcomes and Impacts Oriented Resilience Dimensions
“The main reason why we fear is that the performance of pasture and herbaceous plants for our animals are not as good as before.”(FGD, informal leader)
“The rain has completely stopped and even now the signs we are observing shows that drought is approaching. So, we are very scared.”(KII, community level)
“Households who lose all of their cattle become psychologically abnormal or face mental problem. Some households may lose up to 300 cattle at once and this makes them mentally ill.”
“We believe that the “Waaqa” (God) is our supporter during such terrible time. We know that when such challenging things happen, God would interfere.”(FGD, informal leader)
“Families move away from their dwelling place because of drought, and children are forced to drop out of schooling.”
“Drought causes schools and health centers to be closed, and people are forced to move in search of food and pasture.”
“The basic reason why we fail to cope with drought is lack of education.”(FGD, male)
“Maximizing the capacity of the community by giving different trainings is important. The capacity may be in terms of improving economic capacity or knowledge or skill.”(KII, Borana)
Conflicts of Interest
- Briefing on the Horn of Africa Drought: Climate Change and Future Impacts on Food Security. Available online: https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/briefing-hornofafrica-droughtclimatechange-foodsecurity-020811.pdf (accessed on 28 March 2015).
- Response to the Crisis in the Horn of Africa. Available online: http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/crisis%20prevention/UNDP%20Horn%20of%20Africa%20Funding%20Priorities%20Version%201%200.pdf (accessed on 10 April 2015).
- United Nations Development Programme. The Preparation Team for Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development a Global Report 2004. Available online: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/1096_rdrenglish.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience: In the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online: http://www.unisdr.org/files/46052_disasterriskreductioninthe2030agend.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Droughts Facts. 2002. Available online: http://threeissues.sdsu.edu/three_issues_droughtfacts01.html (accessed on 27 October 2016). [Google Scholar]
- Improving the Livelihoods of Pastoralist Families and Communities: Pastoralism in the New Millennium. Available online: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y2647E/y2647e12.htm (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- Ethiopian Population Center. Population Council Country Profile; Ethiopian Population Center: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Ministry of Agriculture of Ethiopia. Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Resilience Project (RPLRP): Resilience Policy Framework; Ministry of Agriculture of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013.
- Borana Zonal Administration. Annual Report; Borana Zonal Administration: Yabello, Ethiopia, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- USAID. Climate Change and Conflict in Pastoralist Regions of Ethiopia: Mounting Challenges, Emerging Responses. 2011. Available online: https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/climate-change-and-conflict-pastoralist-regions-ethiopia-mounting-challenges-emerging (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- Building Resilience to Food Security Shocks in the Horn of Africa. 2012; Discussion Paper 4. Available online: http://www.fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/2012_frankenberger_note.pdf (accessed on 28 May 2014).
- Adrian, C.; Andy, C. Money to Burn: Comparing the Costs and Benefits of Drought Responses in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia. Available online: https://sites.tufts.edu/jha/archives/1548 (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- Twigg, J. Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community: A Guidance Note. Available online: http://actionaid.org/sites/files/actionaid/characteristics_of_a_disaster_resilient_community.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2015).
- Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Resilience. Available online: https://www.ufz.de/export/data/1/44827_Multidisciplinary%20perspectives%20on%20Urban%20Resilience_small.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2015).
- Institute of Development Studies (IDS). Resilience: New Utopia or New Tyranny? Reflection about the Potentials and Limits of the Concept of Resilience in Relation to Vulnerability Reduction Programmes. Available online: http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Wp405.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2015).
- Twigg, J. Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community: A Guidance Note Version 2. Available online: https://practicalaction.org/docs/ia1/community-characteristics-en-lowres.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2015).
- Resilient Africa Network. Resilience Innovation Challenge for Adverse Climate Effects: Eastern Africa Resilience Innovation Lab. Available online: http://grants.ranlab.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/RIC4ACE-ROUND-1-CALL.pdf (accessed on 28 May 2014).
- Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC). Practitioners Perspective on Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience Building in Asia. In Proceedings of the 8th Practitioner Workshop in Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–25 November 2015.
- Background to IGAD’s Disaster Risk Management Programme. Available online: http://www.icpac.net/ (accessed on 13 December 2016).
- Resilient Africa Network (RAN). The State of African Resilience: Understanding Dimensions of Vulnerability and Adaptation: A Report from the Resilient Africa Network (RAN). Available online: http://www.ranlab.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/State-of-African-Resilience-Report.pdf (accessed on 14 December 2016).
- Liao, C. ACSF-Oxfam Rural Resilience Project: Case Study: Borana, Ethiopia. Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future. Available online: http://www.atkinson.cornell.edu/Assets/ACSF/docs/collaborations/oxfam/Borana%20(Pastorlists)%20Ethiopia%20Case%20Study.pdf-F (accessed on 14 December 2016).
- Borana Zonal Administration. Strategic Plan Document; Borana Zonal Administration: Yabello, Ethiopia, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Lasage, R.; Seifu, A.; Hoogland, M.; de Vries, A. Report on General Characteristics of the Borana Zone, Ethiopia. Available online: http://www.adapts.nl/perch/resources/generalcharacteristicsboranazone.pdf (accessed on 14 December 2016).
- Napier, A.; Desta, S. Review of Pastoral Rangeland Enclosures in Ethiopia; Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative (PLI) Policy Project: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Angassa, A.; Oba, G. Herder perceptions on impacts of range enclosures, crop farming, fire ban and bush encroachment on the rangelands of Borana, Southern Ethiopia. Hum. Ecol. 2008, 36, 201–215. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Glaser, B.G.; Strauss, A.L. The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Aldine Transaction: Brunswick, OH, USA; London, UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Drought Risk Management and Enhancing Resilience in Africa. Available online: http://www.unccd.int/Lists/SiteDocumentLibrary/Publications/02_White_paper_second_draft.pdf (accessed on 12 December 2016).
- Global Water Partnership Eastern Africa (GWPEA). Assessment of Drought Resilience Frameworks in the Horn of Africa. Integrated Drought Management Program in the Horn of Africa (IDMP HOA). Available online: http://www.droughtmanagement.info/literature/IDMP-HOA_Assessment_Drought_Resilience_Frameworks_in_HOA_2015.pdf (accessed on 12 December 2016).
- Building Resilience to Recurrent Crisis: UAIDS Policy and Program Guidance. Available online: http://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1870/USAIDResiliencePolicyGuidanceDocument.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2014).
- Helland, J. Social Organization and Water Control among the Borana. Dev. Chang. 1982, 13, 239–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coppock, D.L. The Borella Plateau of Southern Ethiopia: Synthesis of Pastoral Research, Development Challenges. Available online: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/4203 (accessed on 28 October 2016).
- Livestock and Pastoralist: Livestock Thematic Papers. Available online: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/images/iclsd/documents/wk3_c5_rota.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2015).
- Livelihoods Strategies and Household Resilience to Food Insecurity: An Empirical Analysis to Kenya. Available online: http://capacity4dev.ec.europa.eu/hunger-foodsecurity-nutrition/document/livelihoods-strategies-and-household-resilience-food-insecurity-empirical-analysis-kenya (accessed on 7 November 2014).
- Watson, C. Gender Issues and Pastoral Economic Growth and Development in Ethiopia. Available online: http://www.cop-ppld.net/fileadmin/user_upload/cop-ppld/items/Gender%20Issues%20Pastoralism%20Concept%20Note%20FINAL%20%284%29.pdf (accessed on 7 November 2014).
- Aklilu, A.; Desalegn, W.; Mesfin, K.; Negash, T. Climate Change Impacts on Pastoral Women in Ethiopia: Some Evidences from the Southern Lowlands. Available online: http://phe-ethiopia.org/pdf/Final_Brief_CC_women.pdf (accessed on 7 November 2014).
- From Conflict to Coping: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia on the Contributions of Peace Building to Drought Resilience among Pastoralist Groups. Available online: http://www.mercycorps.org/sites/default/files/from_conflict_to_coping_-_final.pdf (accessed on 6 November 2014).
- Berhanu, W. Recurrent Shocks, Poverty Traps and the Degradation of Pastoralists Social Capital in Southern Ethiopia. Available online: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8861k3z2 (accessed on 11 December 2016).
- Gemtessa, K.; Emana, B.; Tiki, W. Livelihood Diversification in Borana Pastoral Communities of Ethiopia: Prospects and Challenges. Available online: http://www.ilri.org/Link/Publications/Publications/Theme%201/Pastoral%20conference/Papers/Gemtessa%20Livelihood%20Diversification%20of%20the%20Pastoral%20Communities%20of%20Borena.pdf (accessed on 18 November 2014).
- Catley, A.; Iyasu, A. Moving Up or Moving Out? A Rapid Livelihoods and Conflict Analysis in Mieso-Mulu Woreda, Shinile Zone, Somali Region, Ethiopia. Available online: http://fic.tufts.edu/assets/moving-up.pdf (accessed on 18 November 2014).
- Strengthening Institutions for Peace and Development (SIPED): Project Baseline Survey Report. Available online: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pbaaa264.pdf (accessed on 18 November 2104).
- Stephen, D. Vulnerable Livelihoods in Somali Region, Ethiopia. Available online: http://www.pastoralists.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/VulnerableLivelihoods.pdf (accessed on 19 November 2014).
- Gada: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society. Available online: https://zelalemkibret.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/gada-asmerom-legese.pdf (accessed on 11 December 2016).
- Charlotte, L. Resilience Handbook: A Guide to Integrated Resilience Programming. Available online: http://actionaid.org/sites/files/actionaid/2016_reslience_handbook.pdf (accessed on 11 December 2016).
- Building Peace: A Path to Resilience in the Face of Food Insecurity. Available online: https://www.devex.com/news/building-peace-a-path-to-resilience-in-the-face-of-food-insecurity-87497 (accessed on 10 December 2016).
- Headey, D.; Kennedy, A. Enhancing Resilience in the Horn of Africa: Synthesis of an Evidence Based Workshop. Available online: https://books.google.com/books?id=AXgtqItsLiwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed on 11 December 2016).
- Bernard, T.; Dercon, S.; Seyoum, T.A. Beyond Fatalism: An Exploration of Self-Efficacy and Aspirations Failure in Ethiopia. Available online: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01101.pdf (accessed on 19 November 2014).
- Friel, S.; Berry, H.; Dinh, H.; O’Brien, L.; Walls, H.L. The impact of drought on the association between food security and mental health in a nationally representative Australian sample. BMC Public Health 2014, 14, 1102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Adugna, E.; Sileshi, M. Determinants of poverty in agro-pastoral societies of Southern Ethiopia. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 2013, 25, 20. [Google Scholar]
- Stehlik, D.; Lawrence, G.; Gray, I. Gender and drought: Experiences of Australian women in the drought of the 1990s. Disasters 2000, 24, 38–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Birhanu, Z.; Ambelu, A.; Berhanu, N.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldemichael, K. Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020118
Birhanu Z, Ambelu A, Berhanu N, Tesfaye A, Woldemichael K. Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(2):118. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020118Chicago/Turabian Style
Birhanu, Zewdie, Argaw Ambelu, Negalign Berhanu, Abraraw Tesfaye, and Kifle Woldemichael. 2017. "Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, no. 2: 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020118