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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1564;

Microwave-Enhanced Photolysis of Norfloxacin: Kinetics, Matrix Effects, and Degradation Pathways

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China
Program for the Environment and Sustainability, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Degradation of norfloxacin (NOR) was studied using a combination of microwave and UV irradiation methods (MW/UV process). Remarkable synergistic effect was found between MW and UV light. The removal rate with the MW/UV process was much faster than that with UV light irradiation only. Degradation of NOR followed second-order kinetics and ~72% of NOR could be removed in the first 5 min of MW/UV reaction. Influence of inorganic ions (cations (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+) and anions (Cl, SO42−, NO3, CO32−)), humic acid (HA) and surfactants (cation, anion, and non-ionic) on the degradation of NOR by the MW/UV process was investigated. Among the ions, Cu2+ and NO3 ions inhibited the degradation of NOR. The presence of HA and surfactants in water showed a slight inhibition on the NOR removal. Furthermore, the NOR degradation in the MW/UV process was primarily caused by the ·OH-photosensitization steps. Seven intermediates formed by the oxidation of NOR were identified and three reaction pathways were proposed. Removals of NOR in tap water (TW), synthetic wastewater (WW), river water (RW), and seawater (SW) were also studied, which demonstrated that the MW/UV process was an effective oxidation technology for degrading fluoroquinolone antibiotics in different water matrices. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; photolysis; oxidation; microwave; synergistic effect antibiotics; photolysis; oxidation; microwave; synergistic effect

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liao, W.; Sharma, V.K.; Xu, S.; Li, Q.; Wang, L. Microwave-Enhanced Photolysis of Norfloxacin: Kinetics, Matrix Effects, and Degradation Pathways. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1564.

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