Cancer is a serious public health issue and the leading cause of death around the world. This article aimed to estimate the cancer incidence and the trend in standardized cancer incidence in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, South China during 2001–2015 by analyzing the cancer data of the population-based cancer registry in Shenzhen. Data were collected from the cancer registry in Shenzhen, which was conducted during 2001–2015. In this registry, the crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates and cumulative incidence rates were calculated in every five years. Trends for standardized incidence rates of cancers were analyzed by using the joinpoint regression analysis. In total, 33,374.3 thousand person-years (17,593.9 thousand for males and 15,780.4 thousand for females) were monitored over this time period. The number of new cancer cases during 2001–2015 was 59,218 (30,144 and 29,074 for males and females, respectively). The crude incidence during 2001–2005 was 136.44 per 100,000 persons, while the age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China) and by world standard population (ASR-world) were 165.13 and 212.48 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude incidence during 2006–2010 was 179.01 per 100,000 persons, while the ASR-China and ASR-world were 168.08 and 214.44 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude incidence during 2011–2015 was 196.53 per 100,000 persons, while the ASR-China and ASR-world were 171.44 and 219.99 per 100,000 persons, respectively. During 2001 and 2015, the joinpoint regression analysis showed that the ASR-China of cancer had an overall increase of 0.96% per year and 0.84% per year for males and females respectively, although both of these values (males and females) were non-significant increases. The leading cancer types during 2011–2015 were lung, colorectal, thyroid gland, breast, liver, stomach, cervix, nasopharynx, leukemia and lymphoma. For males, the top five common cancers were lung, liver, colorectal, stomach and thyroid gland. For females, the top five common cancers were breast, thyroid gland, lung, colorectal and cervix. The results of this study showed a heavy cancer burden among the population of Shenzhen, China. Future researches of the etiology and prevention of cancers should be planned in order to reduce the incidence associated with cancers in the future.
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