Next Article in Journal
Seasonal Variation and Sources of Dissolved Nutrients in the Yellow River, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)
Previous Article in Journal
Can Public Health Risk Assessment Using Risk Matrices Be Misleading?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells
Article

Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus

1
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
2
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, Silkeborg DK-8600, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9589-9602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809589
Received: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
The mechanisms of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are unclear, in particular in the terrestrial environment. In this study the effects of AgNP (AgNM300K) were assessed in terms of oxidative stress in the soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus, using a range of biochemical markers [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT), lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. E. crypticus were exposed during 3 and 7 days (d) to the reproduction EC20, EC50 and EC80 levels of both AgNP and AgNO3. AgNO3 induced oxidative stress earlier (3 d) than AgNP (7 d), both leading to LPO despite the activation of the anti-redox system. MT increased only for AgNP. The Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP, with e.g. CAT being the main descriptor for AgNP for 7 d. LPO, GST and GPx were for both 3 and 7 d associated with AgNO3, whereas MT and TG were associated with AgNP. These results may reflect a delay in the effects of AgNP compared to AgNO3 due to the slower release of Ag+ ions from the AgNP, although this does not fully explain the observed differences, i.e., we can conclude that there is a nanoparticle effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant system; reactive oxygen species; metallothionein; lipid damage; soil antioxidant system; reactive oxygen species; metallothionein; lipid damage; soil
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ribeiro, M.J.; Maria, V.L.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Amorim, M.J.B. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 9589-9602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809589

AMA Style

Ribeiro MJ, Maria VL, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Amorim MJB. Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(8):9589-9602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ribeiro, Maria J., Vera L. Maria, Janeck J. Scott-Fordsmand, and Mónica J.B. Amorim 2015. "Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Caused by Ag Nanoparticles (NM300K) are Different from Those of AgNO3: Effects in the Soil Invertebrate Enchytraeus Crypticus" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, no. 8: 9589-9602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809589

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop