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Article

Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

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WASTE advisers on urbane environment and development, Lange Houtstraat, 26, 2511 CW, The Hague, The Netherlands
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UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
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Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
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The University of Malawi—The Polytechnic, Ginney Corner, Blantyre 3, Malawi
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicholas Frederick Gray and Panagiotis Karanis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 13871-13885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121113871
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Microbial Pollution and Disinfection)
In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; emergency sanitation; Escherichia coli; excreta; faecal sludge; lactic acid; lime; urea ammonia; emergency sanitation; Escherichia coli; excreta; faecal sludge; lactic acid; lime; urea
MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Perez, M.E.G.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; De Vossenberg, J.V.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13871-13885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121113871

AMA Style

Anderson C, Malambo DH, Perez MEG, Nobela HN, De Pooter L, Spit J, Hooijmans CM, De Vossenberg JV, Greya W, Thole B, Van Lier JB, Brdjanovic D. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(11):13871-13885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121113871

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anderson, Catherine, Dennis Hanjalika Malambo, Maria Eliette Gonzalez Perez, Happiness Ngwanamoseka Nobela, Lobke De Pooter, Jan Spit, Christine Maria Hooijmans, Jack Van De Vossenberg, Wilson Greya, Bernard Thole, Jules B. Van Lier, and Damir Brdjanovic. 2015. "Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, no. 11: 13871-13885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121113871

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