Next Article in Journal
Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Health in Subjects with Obesity in Chinese Population
Next Article in Special Issue
Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation
Previous Article in Journal
Immigrant Mental Health, A Public Health Issue: Looking Back and Moving Forward
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13649-13661;

Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055, Shaanxi, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicholas Frederick Gray and Panagiotis Karanis
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Microbial Pollution and Disinfection)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3454 KB, uploaded 27 October 2015]   |  


The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before”) in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01). Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA) revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: building indoor pipes; indoor heating; flow cytometry; BIOLOG building indoor pipes; indoor heating; flow cytometry; BIOLOG

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.-H.; Chen, S.-N.; Huang, T.-L.; Shang, P.-L.; Yang, X.; Ma, W.-X. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13649-13661.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top