Next Article in Journal
Threshold Dose of Three Types of Quantum Dots (QDs) Induces Oxidative Stress Triggers DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Mouse Fibroblast L929 Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Marcheggiani, S.; et al. Detection of Emerging and Re-Emerging Pathogens in Surface Waters Close to an Urban Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5505–5527
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, Bilthoven 3720, The Netherlands
Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Via E. Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, Italy
Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Vegapark, Via delle Industrie 21/8, Marghera 30175, Venice, Italy
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Auf dem Aberg 1, Schmallenberg 57392, Germany
BASF SE, GB/TB-Z470, Ludwigshafen 67056, Germany
Centre for Environmental Sciences, University Leiden, PO Box 9518, Leiden 2300, The Netherlands
Centre for Human Exposure Science (CHES), Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
Dept Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, PO Box 314, Silkeborg 8600, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mónica Amorim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13415-13434;
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterials; grouping; read-across; MARINA risk assessment strategy nanomaterials; grouping; read-across; MARINA risk assessment strategy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Oomen, A.G.; Bleeker, E.A.J.; Bos, P.M.J.; Van Broekhuizen, F.; Gottardo, S.; Groenewold, M.; Hristozov, D.; Hund-Rinke, K.; Irfan, M.-A.; Marcomini, A.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Rasmussen, K.; Jiménez, A.S.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Wiench, K.; Wohlleben, W.; Landsiedel, R. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13415-13434.

AMA Style

Oomen AG, Bleeker EAJ, Bos PMJ, Van Broekhuizen F, Gottardo S, Groenewold M, Hristozov D, Hund-Rinke K, Irfan M-A, Marcomini A, Peijnenburg WJGM, Rasmussen K, Jiménez AS, Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Van Tongeren M, Wiench K, Wohlleben W, Landsiedel R. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(10):13415-13434.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oomen, Agnes G., Eric A.J. Bleeker, Peter M.J. Bos, Fleur Van Broekhuizen, Stefania Gottardo, Monique Groenewold, Danail Hristozov, Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Muhammad-Adeel Irfan, Antonio Marcomini, Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg, Kirsten Rasmussen, Araceli S. Jiménez, Janeck J. Scott-Fordsmand, Martie Van Tongeren, Karin Wiench, Wendel Wohlleben, and Robert Landsiedel. 2015. "Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, no. 10: 13415-13434.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop