Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among children under five years in Bangladesh. This study investigates the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) datasets over the period 2004–2011 (n
= 18,308 children), and the extent to which this association differed by environmental and behavioral factors affecting level of exposure. The association between HAP and neonatal (age between 0–28 days), infant (age between 0 and 11 months) and under–five (age between 0 and 59 months) mortality was examined using multilevel logistic regression models. HAP was not strongly associated with overall neonatal (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.01–2.22, p
= 0.043), infant (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.91–1.77, p
= 0.157) or under-five mortality (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83–1.55, p
= 0.422) in the context of overall decreasing trends in under-five mortality. The association was stronger for households with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuels, and in women who had never breastfed. Reductions in exposure to pollution from cooking fuel, given it is a ubiquitous and modifiable risk factor, can result in further declines in under-five mortality with household design and behavioural interventions.
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