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Review

Biomedical Exploitation of Chitin and Chitosan via Mechano-Chemical Disassembly, Electrospinning, Dissolution in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids, and Supercritical Drying

University of Ancona, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1510-1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/md9091510
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 28 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Recently developed technology permits to optimize simultaneously surface area, porosity, density, rigidity and surface morphology of chitin-derived materials of biomedical interest. Safe and ecofriendly disassembly of chitin has superseded the dangerous acid hydrolysis and provides higher yields and scaling-up possibilities: the chitosan nanofibrils are finding applications in reinforced bone scaffolds and composite dressings for dermal wounds. Electrospun chitosan nanofibers, in the form of biocompatible thin mats and non-wovens, are being actively studied: composites of gelatin + chitosan + polyurethane have been proposed for cardiac valves and for nerve conduits; fibers are also manufactured from electrospun particles that self-assemble during subsequent freeze-drying. Ionic liquids (salts of alkylated imidazolium) are suitable as non-aqueous solvents that permit desirable reactions to occur for drug delivery purposes. Gel drying with supercritical CO2 leads to structures most similar to the extracellular matrix, even when the chitosan is crosslinked, or in combination with metal oxides of interest in orthopedics. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin; chitosan; electrospinning; ionic liquids; nanofibrils; supercritical carbon dioxide chitin; chitosan; electrospinning; ionic liquids; nanofibrils; supercritical carbon dioxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muzzarelli, R.A.A. Biomedical Exploitation of Chitin and Chitosan via Mechano-Chemical Disassembly, Electrospinning, Dissolution in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids, and Supercritical Drying. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1510-1533. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9091510

AMA Style

Muzzarelli RAA. Biomedical Exploitation of Chitin and Chitosan via Mechano-Chemical Disassembly, Electrospinning, Dissolution in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids, and Supercritical Drying. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(9):1510-1533. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9091510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muzzarelli, Riccardo A. A. 2011. "Biomedical Exploitation of Chitin and Chitosan via Mechano-Chemical Disassembly, Electrospinning, Dissolution in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids, and Supercritical Drying" Marine Drugs 9, no. 9: 1510-1533. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9091510

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