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Review

The Role of Seawater and Saline Solutions in Treatment of Upper Respiratory Conditions

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Jadran-Galenski Laboratorij d.d., Svilno 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Sisters of Mercy University Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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National State Research Institute of Ear, Throat, Nose and Speech, 190013 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Morozov Children’s City Clinical Hospital, Russian National State Pirogov Medical University, 117437 Moscow, Russia
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Regional Center of Traumatology and Ortopedics, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karaganda State Polyclinic, 100000 Karaganda, Kazakhstan
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“Andrija Štampar” School of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20050330
Received: 28 February 2022 / Revised: 4 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 17 May 2022
The history of saline nasal irrigation (SNI) is indeed a long one, beginning from the ancient Ayurvedic practices and gaining a foothold in the west at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, there is a growing number of papers covering the effects of SNI, from in vitro studies to randomized clinical trials and literature overviews. Based on the recommendations of most of the European and American professional associations, seawater, alone or in combination with other preparations, has its place in the treatment of numerous conditions of the upper respiratory tract (URT), primarily chronic (rhino)sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, acute URT infections and postoperative recovery. Additionally, taking into account its multiple mechanisms of action and mounting evidence from recent studies, locally applied seawater preparations may have an important role in the prevention of viral and bacterial infections of the URT. In this review we discuss results published in the past years focusing on seawater preparations and their use in clinical and everyday conditions, since such products provide the benefits of additional ions vs. saline, have an excellent safety profile and are recommended by most professional associations in the field of otorhinolaryngology. View Full-Text
Keywords: seawater; seawater preparation; nasal irrigation; upper respiratory track; otorhinolaryngology seawater; seawater preparation; nasal irrigation; upper respiratory track; otorhinolaryngology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Štanfel, D.; Kalogjera, L.; Ryazantsev, S.V.; Hlača, K.; Radtsig, E.Y.; Teimuraz, R.; Hrabač, P. The Role of Seawater and Saline Solutions in Treatment of Upper Respiratory Conditions. Mar. Drugs 2022, 20, 330. https://doi.org/10.3390/md20050330

AMA Style

Štanfel D, Kalogjera L, Ryazantsev SV, Hlača K, Radtsig EY, Teimuraz R, Hrabač P. The Role of Seawater and Saline Solutions in Treatment of Upper Respiratory Conditions. Marine Drugs. 2022; 20(5):330. https://doi.org/10.3390/md20050330

Chicago/Turabian Style

Štanfel, Danijela, Livije Kalogjera, Sergej V. Ryazantsev, Kristina Hlača, Elena Y. Radtsig, Rashidov Teimuraz, and Pero Hrabač. 2022. "The Role of Seawater and Saline Solutions in Treatment of Upper Respiratory Conditions" Marine Drugs 20, no. 5: 330. https://doi.org/10.3390/md20050330

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