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Communication

Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model

1
Population Council, New York, NY 10065, USA
2
Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, The City University of New York, New York, NY 10007, USA
3
Department of Anthropology, Lehman College, The City University of New York, New York, NY 10468, USA
4
Center for Achievement in Science Education, Department of Biology and Chemistry, School of Natural and Behavioral Sciences, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, New York, NY 11210, USA
5
Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
6
Natural Products Branch, Molecular Targets Program, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Center for Cancer Research, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080418
Received: 12 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products against Coronaviruses)
Over 182 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than 4 million deaths have been reported to date around the world. It is essential to identify broad-spectrum antiviral agents that may prevent or treat infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) but also by other coronaviruses that may jump the species barrier in the future. We evaluated the antiviral selectivity of griffithsin and sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 using a cytotoxicity assay and a cell-based pseudoviral model. The half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) were determined for each compound, using a dose-response-inhibition analysis on GraphPad Prism v9.0.2 software (San Diego, CA, USA). The therapeutic index (TI = CC50/EC50) was calculated for each compound. The potential synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect of different compound combinations was determined by CalcuSyn v1 software (Biosoft, Cambridge, UK), which estimated the combination index (CI) values. Iota and lambda carrageenan showed the most potent antiviral activity (EC50 between 3.2 and 7.5 µg/mL). Carrageenan and griffithsin combinations exhibited synergistic activity (EC50 between 0.2 and 3.8 µg/mL; combination index <1), including against recent SARS-CoV-2 mutations. The griffithsin and carrageenan combination is a promising candidate to prevent or treat infections by SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-1; SARS-CoV-2; lectins; sulfated polysaccharides SARS-CoV-1; SARS-CoV-2; lectins; sulfated polysaccharides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alsaidi, S.; Cornejal, N.; Mahoney, O.; Melo, C.; Verma, N.; Bonnaire, T.; Chang, T.; O’Keefe, B.R.; Sailer, J.; Zydowsky, T.M.; Teleshova, N.; Romero, J.A.F. Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 418. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080418

AMA Style

Alsaidi S, Cornejal N, Mahoney O, Melo C, Verma N, Bonnaire T, Chang T, O’Keefe BR, Sailer J, Zydowsky TM, Teleshova N, Romero JAF. Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(8):418. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080418

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alsaidi, Sahar, Nadjet Cornejal, Oneil Mahoney, Claudia Melo, Neeharika Verma, Thierry Bonnaire, Theresa Chang, Barry R. O’Keefe, James Sailer, Thomas M. Zydowsky, Natalia Teleshova, and José A.F. Romero 2021. "Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model" Marine Drugs 19, no. 8: 418. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080418

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