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Article

Marine Sulfated Polysaccharides as Promising Antiviral Agents: A Comprehensive Report and Modeling Study Focusing on SARS CoV-2

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School of Computing, Engineering & Physical Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK
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Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill Health Campus, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN, UK
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Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Box 591, SE 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
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International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom 32512, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, Beni-Suef 62513, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Khaled A. Shaaban and Vassilios Roussis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080406
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 18 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Microbial Diversity as Source of Bioactive Compounds)
SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) is a novel coronavirus strain that emerged at the end of 2019, causing millions of deaths so far. Despite enormous efforts being made through various drug discovery campaigns, there is still a desperate need for treatments with high efficacy and selectivity. Recently, marine sulfated polysaccharides (MSPs) have earned significant attention and are widely examined against many viral infections. This article attempted to produce a comprehensive report about MSPs from different marine sources alongside their antiviral effects against various viral species covering the last 25 years of research articles. Additionally, these reported MSPs were subjected to molecular docking and dynamic simulation experiments to ascertain potential interactions with both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS CoV-2’s spike protein (S-protein) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). The possible binding sites on both S-protein’s RBD and ACE2 were determined based on how they bind to heparin, which has been reported to exhibit significant antiviral activity against SARS CoV-2 through binding to RBD, preventing the virus from affecting ACE2. Moreover, our modeling results illustrate that heparin can also bind to and block ACE2, acting as a competitor and protective agent against SARS CoV-2 infection. Nine of the investigated MSPs candidates exhibited promising results, taking into consideration the newly emerged SARS CoV-2 variants, of which five were not previously reported to exert antiviral activity against SARS CoV-2, including sulfated galactofucan (1), sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) (2), sulfated mannan (3), sulfated heterorhamnan (8), and chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E) (9). These results shed light on the importance of sulfated polysaccharides as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfated polysaccharides; antiviral; SARS-CoV-2; docking; molecular dynamic simulations sulfated polysaccharides; antiviral; SARS-CoV-2; docking; molecular dynamic simulations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salih, A.E.M.; Thissera, B.; Yaseen, M.; Hassane, A.S.I.; El-Seedi, H.R.; Sayed, A.M.; Rateb, M.E. Marine Sulfated Polysaccharides as Promising Antiviral Agents: A Comprehensive Report and Modeling Study Focusing on SARS CoV-2. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 406. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080406

AMA Style

Salih AEM, Thissera B, Yaseen M, Hassane ASI, El-Seedi HR, Sayed AM, Rateb ME. Marine Sulfated Polysaccharides as Promising Antiviral Agents: A Comprehensive Report and Modeling Study Focusing on SARS CoV-2. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(8):406. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salih, Abdalla E.M., Bathini Thissera, Mohammed Yaseen, Ahmed S.I. Hassane, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Ahmed M. Sayed, and Mostafa E. Rateb. 2021. "Marine Sulfated Polysaccharides as Promising Antiviral Agents: A Comprehensive Report and Modeling Study Focusing on SARS CoV-2" Marine Drugs 19, no. 8: 406. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080406

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