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Article

Bioprospecting of Less-Polar Constituents from Endemic Brown Macroalga Fucus virsoides J. Agardh from the Adriatic Sea and Targeted Antioxidant Effects In Vitro and In Vivo (Zebrafish Model)

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Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Laboratory for Aquaculture Biotechnology, Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Core Facility Center “Arktika”, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny 17, 163002 Arkhangelsk, Russia
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Department of Organic Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sylvia Urban
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050235
Received: 3 April 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
The endemic brown macroalga Fucus virsoides J. Agardh from the Adriatic Sea was in the focus of the present research. The volatiles of fresh (FrFv) and air-dried (DrFv) samples of F. virsoides obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and hydrodistillation (HD) were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The major HS-FrFv compound was pentadecane (61.90–71.55%) followed by pentadec-1-ene (11.00–7.98%). In HS-DrFv, pentadec-1-ene was not present, and few lower aliphatic compounds appeared, as well as benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. In HD-FrFv, particularly abundant were alkenes (such as pentadec-1-ene (19.32%), or (E)-pentadec-7-ene (8.35%)). In HD-DrFv, more oxidation products were present (e.g., carbonyl compounds such as tridecanal (18.51%)). The fatty acids profile of freeze-dried sample (FdFv) after conversion to methyl esters was determined by GC-FID, and oleic acid was dominant (42.28%), followed by arachidonic acid (15.00%). High-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI-HRMS) was used for the screening of less polar fractions (F3 and F4) of F. virsoides. Mono- and diglycerides of stearic, palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids were found. Terpenoids and steroids comprised the compounds C20H30(32)O2 and C29H48O(2). Among carotenoids, fucoxanthin was identified. Chlorophyll derivatives were also found (C55H74(72)N4O(5-7)), dominated by pheophytin a. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was investigated by in vitro assays (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reduction of radical cation (ABTS•+), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and by in vivo zebrafish model (along with fish embryotoxicity). In vitro experiments proved good radical scavenging abilities of F3 and F4 fractions, which were additionally supported by the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown algae; volatiles; fatty acids; pigments; bioassays; embryotoxicity; reactive oxygen species brown algae; volatiles; fatty acids; pigments; bioassays; embryotoxicity; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jerković, I.; Cikoš, A.-M.; Babić, S.; Čižmek, L.; Bojanić, K.; Aladić, K.; Ul’yanovskii, N.V.; Kosyakov, D.S.; Lebedev, A.T.; Čož-Rakovac, R.; Trebše, P.; Jokić, S. Bioprospecting of Less-Polar Constituents from Endemic Brown Macroalga Fucus virsoides J. Agardh from the Adriatic Sea and Targeted Antioxidant Effects In Vitro and In Vivo (Zebrafish Model). Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 235. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050235

AMA Style

Jerković I, Cikoš A-M, Babić S, Čižmek L, Bojanić K, Aladić K, Ul’yanovskii NV, Kosyakov DS, Lebedev AT, Čož-Rakovac R, Trebše P, Jokić S. Bioprospecting of Less-Polar Constituents from Endemic Brown Macroalga Fucus virsoides J. Agardh from the Adriatic Sea and Targeted Antioxidant Effects In Vitro and In Vivo (Zebrafish Model). Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(5):235. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050235

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jerković, Igor, Ana-Marija Cikoš, Sanja Babić, Lara Čižmek, Krunoslav Bojanić, Krunoslav Aladić, Nikolay V. Ul’yanovskii, Dmitry S. Kosyakov, Albert T. Lebedev, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac, Polonca Trebše, and Stela Jokić. 2021. "Bioprospecting of Less-Polar Constituents from Endemic Brown Macroalga Fucus virsoides J. Agardh from the Adriatic Sea and Targeted Antioxidant Effects In Vitro and In Vivo (Zebrafish Model)" Marine Drugs 19, no. 5: 235. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050235

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