Next Article in Journal
Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus: The Nutraceutical Potential of an Unexploited Marine Resource
Previous Article in Journal
3-D Culture of Marine Sponge Cells for Production of Bioactive Compounds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Guidance Level for Brevetoxins in French Shellfish
Article

Changing Trends in Paralytic Shellfish Poisonings Reflect Increasing Sea Surface Temperatures and Practices of Indigenous and Recreational Harvesters in British Columbia, Canada

Environmental Health Services, British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jordi Molgó
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100568
Received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins)
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) occurs when shellfish contaminated with saxitoxin or equivalent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are ingested. In British Columbia, Canada, documented poisonings are increasing in frequency based on 62 investigations identified from 1941–2020. Two PSP investigations were reported between 1941 and 1960 compared to 31 since 2001 (p < 0.0001) coincident with rising global temperatures (r2 = 0.76, p < 0.006). The majority of PSP investigations (71%) and cases (69%) were linked to self-harvested shellfish. Far more investigations involved harvests by indigenous communities (24%) than by commercial and recreational groups. Single-case-exposure investigations increased by more than 3.5 times in the decade 2011–2020 compared to previous periods. Clams (47%); mussels (26%); oysters (14%); scallops (6%); and, in more recent years, crabs (4%) were linked to illnesses. To guide understanding of self-harvesting consumption risks, we recommend collecting data to determine when PST-producing algae are present in high concentrations, improving the quality of data in online shellfish harvest maps to include dates of last testing; biotoxin testing results; and a description of bivalve species tested. Over reliance on toxin results in biomonitored species may not address actual consumption risks for unmonitored species harvested from the same area. We further recommend introducing phytoplankton monitoring in remote indigenous communities where self-harvesting is common and toxin testing is unavailable, as well as continuing participatory education about biotoxin risks in seafoods. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; harmful algal blooms; indigenous; marine toxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning; saxitoxin; bivalves; public health climate change; harmful algal blooms; indigenous; marine toxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning; saxitoxin; bivalves; public health
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

McIntyre, L.; Miller, A.; Kosatsky, T. Changing Trends in Paralytic Shellfish Poisonings Reflect Increasing Sea Surface Temperatures and Practices of Indigenous and Recreational Harvesters in British Columbia, Canada. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100568

AMA Style

McIntyre L, Miller A, Kosatsky T. Changing Trends in Paralytic Shellfish Poisonings Reflect Increasing Sea Surface Temperatures and Practices of Indigenous and Recreational Harvesters in British Columbia, Canada. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(10):568. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100568

Chicago/Turabian Style

McIntyre, Lorraine, Aroha Miller, and Tom Kosatsky. 2021. "Changing Trends in Paralytic Shellfish Poisonings Reflect Increasing Sea Surface Temperatures and Practices of Indigenous and Recreational Harvesters in British Columbia, Canada" Marine Drugs 19, no. 10: 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100568

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop