Next Article in Journal
Sortase A-Inhibitory Metabolites from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.
Next Article in Special Issue
Biocompatibility of a Marine Collagen-Based Scaffold In Vitro and In Vivo
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Astaxanthin on Diabetes Pathogenesis and Chronic Complications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Functionalization of 3D Chitinous Skeletal Scaffolds of Sponge Origin Using Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Properties
Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Depth on the Morphology, Bacterial Clearance, and Respiration of the Mediterranean Sponge Chondrosia reniformis (Nardo, 1847)

1
Marine Animal Ecology Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
3B’s Research Group, I3Bs–Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
3
ICVS/3B’s–PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4806-909 Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18070358
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
To support the successful application of sponges for water purification and collagen production, we evaluated the effect of depth on sponge morphology, growth, physiology, and functioning. Specimens of Eastern Mediterranean populations of the sponge Chondrosia reniformis (Nardo, 1847) (Demospongiae, Chondrosiida, Chondrosiidae) were reciprocally transplanted between 5 and 20 m depth within the Kaş-Kekova Marine Reserve Area. Control sponges at 5 m had fewer but larger oscula than their conspecifics at 20 m, and a significant inverse relationship between the osculum density and size was found in C. reniformis specimens growing along a natural depth gradient. Sponges transplanted from 20 to 5 m altered their morphology to match the 5 m control sponges, producing fewer but larger oscula, whereas explants transplanted from 5 to 20 m did not show a reciprocal morphological plasticity. Despite the changes in morphology, the clearance, respiration, and growth rates were comparable among all the experimental groups. This indicates that depth-induced morphological changes do not affect the overall performance of the sponges. Hence, the potential for the growth and bioremediation of C. reniformis in mariculture is not likely to change with varying culture depth. The collagen content, however, was higher in shallow water C. reniformis compared to deeper-growing sponges, which requires further study to optimize collagen production. View Full-Text
Keywords: sponge; osculum size; respiration; clearance rate; depth; Chondrosia reniformis; collagen; integrated multitrophic aquaculture sponge; osculum size; respiration; clearance rate; depth; Chondrosia reniformis; collagen; integrated multitrophic aquaculture
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gökalp, M.; Kooistra, T.; Rocha, M.S.; Silva, T.H.; Osinga, R.; Murk, A.J.; Wijgerde, T. The Effect of Depth on the Morphology, Bacterial Clearance, and Respiration of the Mediterranean Sponge Chondrosia reniformis (Nardo, 1847). Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 358.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop