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Secondary Metabolites of the Genus Didemnum: A Comprehensive Review of Chemical Diversity and Pharmacological Properties

1
Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
3
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah 21974, Saudi Arabia
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Natural Products Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Suez Canal University Hospital, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
7
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18060307
Received: 10 May 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
Tunicates (ascidians) are common marine invertebrates that are an exceptionally important source of natural products with biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, including compounds that are used clinically in cancers. Among tunicates, the genus Didemnum is important because it includes the most species, and it belongs to the most speciose family (Didemnidae). The genus Didemnum includes the species D. molle, D. chartaceum, D. albopunctatum, and D. obscurum, as well as others, which are well known for their chemically diverse secondary metabolites. To date, investigators have reported secondary metabolites, usually including bioactivity data, for at least 69 members of the genus Didemnum, leading to isolation of 212 compounds. Many of these compounds exhibit valuable biological activities in assays targeting cancers, bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoans, and the central nervous system. This review highlights compounds isolated from genus Didemnum through December 2019. Chemical diversity, pharmacological activities, geographical locations, and applied chemical methods are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: tunicate; ascidian; genus Didemnum; secondary metabolite; chemical diversity; natural product; biological properties tunicate; ascidian; genus Didemnum; secondary metabolite; chemical diversity; natural product; biological properties
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Youssef, D.T.A.; Almagthali, H.; Shaala, L.A.; Schmidt, E.W. Secondary Metabolites of the Genus Didemnum: A Comprehensive Review of Chemical Diversity and Pharmacological Properties. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 307.

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