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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Fouling Effects of Saponin-Containing Crude Extracts from Tropical Indo-Pacific Sea Cucumbers

1
Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Schleusenstrasse 1, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany
2
Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, J.A. Palmènin tie 260, 10900 Hanko, Finland
3
Helmholtz Institute for Functional Marine Biodiversity at the University of Oldenburg (HIFMB), Ammerländer Heerstrasse 231, D-26129 Oldenburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040181
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from XVI MaNaPro and XI ECMNP)
Sea cucumbers are bottom dwelling invertebrates, which are mostly found on subtropical and tropical sea grass beds, sandy reef flats, or reef slopes. Although constantly exposed to fouling communities in these habitats, many species are surprisingly free of invertebrate epibionts and microfouling algae such as diatoms. In our study, we investigated the anti-fouling (AF) activities of different crude extracts of tropical Indo-Pacific sea cucumber species against the fouling diatom Cylindrotheca closterium. Nine sea cucumber species from three genera (i.e., Holothuria, Bohadschia, Actinopyga) were selected and extracted to assess their AF activities. To verify whether the sea cucumber characteristic triterpene glycosides were responsible for the observed potent AF activities, we tested purified fractions enriched in saponins isolated from Bohadschia argus, representing one of the most active anti-fouling extracts. Saponins were quantified by vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric assays and identified by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. We were able to demonstrate that AF activities in sea cucumber extracts were species-specific, and growth inhibition as well as attachment of the diatom to surfaces is dependent on the saponin concentration (i.e., Actinopyga contained the highest quantities), as well as on the molecular composition and structure of the present saponins (i.e., Bivittoside D derivative was the most bioactive compound). In conclusion, the here performed AF assay represents a promising and fast method for selecting the most promising bioactive organism as well as for identifying novel compounds with potent AF activities for the discovery of potentially novel pharmacologically active natural products. View Full-Text
Keywords: holothurian; diatom; anti-fouling compounds; marine natural products; saponins; triterpene glycosides; mass spectrometry holothurian; diatom; anti-fouling compounds; marine natural products; saponins; triterpene glycosides; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kamyab, E.; Goebeler, N.; Kellermann, M.Y.; Rohde, S.; Reverter, M.; Striebel, M.; Schupp, P.J. Anti-Fouling Effects of Saponin-Containing Crude Extracts from Tropical Indo-Pacific Sea Cucumbers. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040181

AMA Style

Kamyab E, Goebeler N, Kellermann MY, Rohde S, Reverter M, Striebel M, Schupp PJ. Anti-Fouling Effects of Saponin-Containing Crude Extracts from Tropical Indo-Pacific Sea Cucumbers. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(4):181. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040181

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamyab, Elham; Goebeler, Norman; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Rohde, Sven; Reverter, Miriam; Striebel, Maren; Schupp, Peter J. 2020. "Anti-Fouling Effects of Saponin-Containing Crude Extracts from Tropical Indo-Pacific Sea Cucumbers" Mar. Drugs 18, no. 4: 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040181

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