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Open AccessArticle

The Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan Can Be Tailored by Formulation

1
Drug Transport and Delivery Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway, Universitetsveien 57, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Research group for Host-Microbe Interaction, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway, Sykehusveien 44, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020096
Received: 10 January 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 30 January 2020 / Published: 31 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
Topical administration of drugs into the vagina can provide local therapy of vaginal infections, preventing the possible systemic side effects of the drugs. The natural polysaccharide chitosan is known for its excellent mucoadhesive properties, safety profile, and antibacterial effects, and thus it can be utilized in improving localized vaginal therapy by prolonging the residence time of a drug at the vaginal site while acting as an antimicrobial in synergy. Therefore, we aimed to explore the potential of chitosan, namely chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan hydrogel, as an excipient with intrinsic antimicrobial properties. Liposomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method followed by vesicle size reduction by sonication to the desired size, approximately 200 nm, and coated with chitosan (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/v, respectively). The mucoadhesive properties of chitosan-coated liposomes were determined through their binding efficiency to mucin compared to non-coated liposomes. Non-coated liposomal suspensions were incorporated in chitosan hydrogels forming the liposomes-in-hydrogel formulations, which were further assessed for their texture properties in the presence of biological fluid simulants. The antibacterial effect of chitosan-coated liposomes (0.03%, 0.1% and 0.3%, w/v) and chitosan hydrogels (0.1% and 0.3%, w/w) on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus was successfully confirmed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan-coated liposomes; chitosan hydrogel; mucoadhesion; vaginal infections; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus chitosan-coated liposomes; chitosan hydrogel; mucoadhesion; vaginal infections; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jøraholmen, M.W.; Bhargava, A.; Julin, K.; Johannessen, M.; Škalko-Basnet, N. The Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan Can Be Tailored by Formulation. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 96.

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