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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Effects of Crude Fucus distichus Subspecies evanescens Fucoidan Extract on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells―Implications for Use in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1
Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Pharmaceutical Institute, University of Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17090538
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 16 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins)
Fucoidan extracts may have beneficial effects in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Over-the-counter fucoidan preparations are generally undefined, crude extracts. In this study, we investigated the effect of a crude fucoidan extract from Fucus distichus subspecies evanescens (Fe) on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fe extract was investigated for chemical composition and molar mass. It was tested in primary RPE and RPE cell line ARPE19. Oxidative stress was induced with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cell viability evaluated with MTT assay, VEGF secretion assessed in ELISA. Phagocytosis was evaluated in a fluorescence microscopic assay. Wound healing ability was tested in a scratch assay. Additionally, the inhibition of elastase and complement system by Fe extract was studied. The Fe extract contained about 61.9% fucose and high amounts of uronic acids (26.2%). The sulfate content was not as high as expected (6.9%). It was not toxic and not protective against oxidative stress. However, Fe extract was able to reduce VEGF secretion in ARPE19. Phagocytosis was also reduced. Concerning wound healing, a delay could be observed in higher concentrations. While some beneficial effects could be found, it seems to interfere with RPE function, which may reduce its beneficial effects in AMD treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens; fucoidan; retinal pigment epithelium; VEGF; oxidative stress; phagocytosis Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens; fucoidan; retinal pigment epithelium; VEGF; oxidative stress; phagocytosis
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Rohwer, K.; Neupane, S.; Bittkau, K.S.; Pérez, M.G.; Dörschmann, P.; Roider, J.; Alban, S.; Klettner, A. Effects of Crude Fucus distichus Subspecies evanescens Fucoidan Extract on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells―Implications for Use in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 538.

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