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Open AccessReview

Update on Monoterpenes from Red Macroalgae: Isolation, Analysis, and Bioactivity

1
Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, R. Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17090537
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 16 September 2019
Macroalgae produce a wide range of monoterpenes as secondary metabolites of mevalonate (MVA) and/or methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway (often including haloperoxidase action). Great biodiversity of macroalgal monoterpenes was reported including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures. Halogenated monoterpenes exhibited significant biological activity (e.g., anticancer, antiplasmodial, and insecticidal) that is influenced by the number of present halogens (higher halogen content is preferable, especially bromine) and their position within the monoterpene skeleton. In distinction from the existing reviews, the present review provides novelty with respect to: (a) exclusively monoterpenes from red macroalgae are targeted; (b) biosynthesis, isolation, and analysis, as well as bioactivity of monoterpenes are represented; (c) the methods of their isolation, analysis, and structure elucidation are summarized; (d) the bioactivity of macroalgal monoterpenes is systematically presented with emphasis on anticancer activity; (e) the literature references were updated. View Full-Text
Keywords: macroalgae; monoterpenes; biosynthesis; isolation; bioactivity macroalgae; monoterpenes; biosynthesis; isolation; bioactivity
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Cikoš, A.-M.; Jurin, M.; Čož-Rakovac, R.; Jokić, S.; Jerković, I. Update on Monoterpenes from Red Macroalgae: Isolation, Analysis, and Bioactivity. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 537.

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