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Current Stage of Marine Ceramic Grafts for 3D Bone Tissue Regeneration

1
R + D Pharma Group (GI-1645), Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Department of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Sciences, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Campus de Anchieta, 38200 La Laguna (Tenerife), Spain
3
New Materials Group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Vigo, IISGS, MTI-Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080471
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Cell Culture Based on Marine Resources)
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Abstract

Bioceramic scaffolds are crucial in tissue engineering for bone regeneration. They usually provide hierarchical porosity, bioactivity, and mechanical support supplying osteoconductive properties and allowing for 3D cell culture. In the case of age-related diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, or other bone alterations as alveolar bone resorption or spinal fractures, functional tissue recovery usually requires the use of grafts. These bone grafts or bone void fillers are usually based on porous calcium phosphate grains which, once disposed into the bone defect, act as scaffolds by incorporating, to their own porosity, the intergranular one. Despite their routine use in traumatology and dental applications, specific graft requirements such as osteoinductivity or balanced dissolution rate are still not completely fulfilled. Marine origin bioceramics research opens the possibility to find new sources of bone grafts given the wide diversity of marine materials still largely unexplored. The interest in this field has also been urged by the limitations of synthetic or mammalian-derived grafts already in use and broadly investigated. The present review covers the current stage of major marine origin bioceramic grafts for bone tissue regeneration and their promising properties. Both products already available on the market and those in preclinical phases are included. To understand their clear contribution to the field, the main clinical requirements and the current available biological-derived ceramic grafts with their advantages and limitations have been collected. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine ceramic grafts; calcium phosphate; bone tissue regeneration; osteoinductive properties; structural strength; dissolution rate marine ceramic grafts; calcium phosphate; bone tissue regeneration; osteoinductive properties; structural strength; dissolution rate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diaz-Rodriguez, P.; López-Álvarez, M.; Serra, J.; González, P.; Landín, M. Current Stage of Marine Ceramic Grafts for 3D Bone Tissue Regeneration. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 471.

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