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Mannose-Specific Lectins from Marine Algae: Diverse Structural Scaffolds Associated to Common Virucidal and Anti-Cancer Properties

1
Institut de Recherche et Développement, Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR 152 PharmaDev, Université Paul Sabatier, 35 Chemin des Maraîchers, 31062 Toulouse, France
2
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080440
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
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Abstract

To date, a number of mannose-specific lectins have been isolated and characterized from seaweeds, especially from red algae. In fact, man-specific seaweed lectins consist of different structural scaffolds harboring a single or a few carbohydrate-binding sites which specifically recognize mannose-containing glycans. Depending on the structural scaffold, man-specific seaweed lectins belong to five distinct structurally-related lectin families, namely (1) the griffithsin lectin family (β-prism I scaffold); (2) the Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin homolog (OAAH) lectin family (β-barrel scaffold); (3) the legume lectin-like lectin family (β-sandwich scaffold); (4) the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-like lectin family (β-prism II scaffold); and, (5) the MFP2-like lectin family (MFP2-like scaffold). Another algal lectin from Ulva pertusa, has been inferred to the methanol dehydrogenase related lectin family, because it displays a rather different GlcNAc-specificity. In spite of these structural discrepancies, all members from the five lectin families share a common ability to specifically recognize man-containing glycans and, especially, high-mannose type glycans. Because of their mannose-binding specificity, these lectins have been used as valuable tools for deciphering and characterizing the complex mannose-containing glycans from the glycocalyx covering both normal and transformed cells, and as diagnostic tools and therapeutic drugs that specifically recognize the altered high-mannose N-glycans occurring at the surface of various cancer cells. In addition to these anti-cancer properties, man-specific seaweed lectins have been widely used as potent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-inactivating proteins, due to their capacity to specifically interact with the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and prevent the virion infectivity of HIV-1 towards the host CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: lectin; seaweed; red algae; mannose-binding specificity; structure-function relationships; diagnostic tool; therapeutic drugs; anti-cancer properties; anti-HIV-1 properties lectin; seaweed; red algae; mannose-binding specificity; structure-function relationships; diagnostic tool; therapeutic drugs; anti-cancer properties; anti-HIV-1 properties
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Barre, A.; Simplicien, M.; Benoist, H.; Van Damme, E.J.; Rougé, P. Mannose-Specific Lectins from Marine Algae: Diverse Structural Scaffolds Associated to Common Virucidal and Anti-Cancer Properties. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 440.

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