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Open AccessArticle

Discovery of Primarolides A and B from Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus Using Osmotic Stress and Treatment with Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
2
Nautilus Biosciences Croda, Regis and Joan Duffy Research Centre, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
3
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
4
Department of Biomedical Science, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080435
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
Advances in whole-genome sequencing of many fungal species has revealed the presence of numerous “silent” biosynthetic genes, highlighting their potential to produce a wide variety of natural products. These silent biosynthetic genes are regulated in part by their highly condensed chromatin structure, which can be modified to allow transcription in response to external stimuli. In this study, Asteromyces cruciatus was subjected to both epigenetic modification and osmotic stress to enhance the production of new natural products. This “cooperative induction” strategy led to the isolation and characterization of two new polyketides from a fermentation of A. cruciatus treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and sodium chloride. The metabolic profiles of the control and treated samples were assessed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRESIMS) metabolomic analysis, highlighting the upregulation of two new polyketides, primarolides A and B. These compounds were purified using reversed-phase flash chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their planar structures were established using NMR spectroscopy. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural product; epigenetic modification; silent biosynthetic gene clusters; metabolomics; Asteromyces cruciatus natural product; epigenetic modification; silent biosynthetic gene clusters; metabolomics; Asteromyces cruciatus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Igboeli, H.A.; Marchbank, D.H.; Correa, H.; Overy, D.; Kerr, R.G. Discovery of Primarolides A and B from Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus Using Osmotic Stress and Treatment with Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 435.

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