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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the First Conotoxin from Conus ateralbus, a Vermivorous Cone Snail from the Cabo Verde Archipelago

Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
CIIMAR/CIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Terminal de Cruzeiros, do Porto de Leixões, 4450-208 Porto, Portugal
FECM—Faculty of Engineering and Marine Science, University of Cabo Verde, Mindelo CP 163, Cabo Verde
Langone Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 432;
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
PDF [3434 KB, uploaded 24 July 2019]


Conus ateralbus is a cone snail endemic to the west side of the island of Sal, in the Cabo Verde Archipelago off West Africa. We describe the isolation and characterization of the first bioactive peptide from the venom of this species. This 30AA venom peptide is named conotoxin AtVIA (δ-conotoxin-like). An excitatory activity was manifested by the peptide on a majority of mouse lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons. An analog of AtVIA with conservative changes on three amino acid residues at the C-terminal region was synthesized and this analog produced an identical effect on the mouse neurons. AtVIA has homology with δ-conotoxins from other worm-hunters, which include conserved sequence elements that are shared with δ-conotoxins from fish-hunting Conus. In contrast, there is no comparable sequence similarity with δ-conotoxins from the venoms of molluscivorous Conus species. A rationale for the potential presence of δ-conotoxins, that are potent in vertebrate systems in two different lineages of worm-hunting cone snails, is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: conotoxin; cone snail; Conus; Conus ateralbus; Kalloconus conotoxin; cone snail; Conus; Conus ateralbus; Kalloconus

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Neves, J.L.B.; Imperial, J.S.; Morgenstern, D.; Ueberheide, B.; Gajewiak, J.; Antunes, A.; Robinson, S.D.; Espino, S.; Watkins, M.; Vasconcelos, V.; Olivera, B.M. Characterization of the First Conotoxin from Conus ateralbus, a Vermivorous Cone Snail from the Cabo Verde Archipelago. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 432.

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