In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that phycotoxins can impact intestinal epithelial cells and can cross the intestinal barrier to some extent. Therefore, phycotoxins can reach cells underlying the epithelium, such as enteric glial cells (EGCs), which are involved in gut homeostasis, motility, and barrier integrity. This study compared the toxicological effects of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), yessotoxin (YTX), okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), 13-desmethyl-spirolide C (SPX), and palytoxin (PlTX) on the rat EGC cell line CRL2690. Cell viability, morphology, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell cycle, and specific glial markers were evaluated using RT-qPCR and high content analysis (HCA) approaches. PTX2, YTX, OA, AZA1, and PlTX induced neurite alterations, oxidative stress, cell cycle disturbance, and increase of specific EGC markers. An inflammatory response for YTX, OA, and AZA1 was suggested by the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and induction of DNA double strand breaks (γH2AX) were also observed with PTX2, YTX, OA, and AZA1. These findings suggest that PTX2, YTX, OA, AZA1, and PlTX may affect intestinal barrier integrity through alterations of the human enteric glial system. Our results provide novel insight into the toxicological effects of phycotoxins on the gut.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited