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Open AccessArticle

ABC Transporters in Prorocentrum lima and Their Expression Under Different Environmental Conditions Including Okadaic Acid Production

Key Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 259;
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Defense in Marine Organisms)
Prorocentrum lima is a typical benthic toxic dinoflagellate, which can produce phycotoxins such as okadaic acid (OA). In this study, we identified three ABC transporter genes (ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2) and characterized their expression patterns, as well as OA production under different environmental conditions in P. lima. We found that the three ABC transporters all showed high identity with related ABC proteins from other species, and contained classical features of ABC transport proteins. Among them, ABCG2 was a half size transporter. The three ABC transporter genes displayed various expression profiles under different conditions. The high concentration of Cu2+ could up-regulate ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 transcripts in P. lima, suggesting the potential defensive role of ABC transporters against metal ions in surrounding waters. Cu2+, in some concentration, could induce OA production; meanwhile, tributyltin inhibited OA accumulation. The grazer Artemia salina could induce OA production, and P. lima displayed some toxicity to the grazer, indicating the possibility of OA as an anti-grazing chemical. Collectively, our results revealed intriguing data about OA production and the expression patterns of three ABC transporter genes. However, we could not find any significant correlation between OA production and expression pattern of the three ABC transporters in P. lima. Our results might provide new molecular insights on the defensive responses of P. lima to the surrounding environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ABC transporters; Prorocentrum lima; okadaic acid ABC transporters; Prorocentrum lima; okadaic acid
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Gu, S.; Xiao, S.-W.; Zheng, J.-W.; Li, H.-Y.; Liu, J.-S.; Yang, W.-D. ABC Transporters in Prorocentrum lima and Their Expression Under Different Environmental Conditions Including Okadaic Acid Production. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 259.

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