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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030189

Rat Glioma Cell-Based Functional Characterization of Anti-Stress and Protein Deaggregation Activities in the Marine Carotenoids, Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin

1
DAILAB, DBT-AIST International Center for Translational & Environmental Research (DAICENTER), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565, Japan
2
School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577, Japan
3
CycloChem Co., Ltd., 7-4-5 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract

Stress, protein aggregation, and loss of functional properties of cells have been shown to contribute to several deleterious pathologies including cancer and neurodegeneration. The incidence of these pathologies has also been shown to increase with age and are often presented as evidence to the cumulative effect of stress and protein aggregation. Prevention or delay of onset of these diseases may prove to be unprecedentedly beneficial. In this study, we explored the anti-stress and differentiation-inducing potential of two marine bioactive carotenoids (astaxanthin and fucoxanthin) using rat glioma cells as a model. We found that the low (nontoxic) doses of both protected cells against UV-induced DNA damage, heavy metal, and heat-induced protein misfolding and aggregation of proteins. Their long-term treatment in glioma cells caused the induction of physiological differentiation into astrocytes. These phenotypes were supported by upregulation of proteins that regulate cell proliferation, DNA damage repair mechanism, and glial differentiation, suggesting their potential for prevention and treatment of stress, protein aggregation, and age-related pathologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine carotenoid; ultraviolet radiation; DNA damage; protein misfolding; protein aggregation; glial differentiation; protection marine carotenoid; ultraviolet radiation; DNA damage; protein misfolding; protein aggregation; glial differentiation; protection
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Afzal, S.; Garg, S.; Ishida, Y.; Terao, K.; Kaul, S.C.; Wadhwa, R. Rat Glioma Cell-Based Functional Characterization of Anti-Stress and Protein Deaggregation Activities in the Marine Carotenoids, Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 189.

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