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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030177

Transcriptomic-Proteomic Correlation in the Predation-Evoked Venom of the Cone Snail, Conus imperialis

1
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
2
Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, Département des acides amines, Peptides et Protéines, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5247, Université Montpellier 2—Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France
3
Léon Bérard Cancer Center, 28 rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract

Individual variation in animal venom has been linked to geographical location, feeding habit, season, size, and gender. Uniquely, cone snails possess the remarkable ability to change venom composition in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. To date, correlations between the venom gland transcriptome and proteome within and between individual cone snails have not been reported. In this study, we use 454 pyrosequencing and mass spectrometry to decipher the transcriptomes and proteomes of the venom gland and corresponding predation-evoked venom of two specimens of Conus imperialis. Transcriptomic analyses revealed 17 conotoxin gene superfamilies common to both animals, including 5 novel superfamilies and two novel cysteine frameworks. While highly expressed transcripts were common to both specimens, variation of moderately and weakly expressed precursor sequences was surprisingly diverse, with one specimen expressing two unique gene superfamilies and consistently producing more paralogs within each conotoxin gene superfamily. Using a quantitative labelling method, conotoxin variability was compared quantitatively, with highly expressed peptides showing a strong correlation between transcription and translation, whereas peptides expressed at lower levels showed a poor correlation. These results suggest that major transcripts are subject to stabilizing selection, while minor transcripts are subject to diversifying selection. View Full-Text
Keywords: conopeptide; conotoxin; mass spectrometry; venom transcriptome; 454 sequencing; iTRAQ; proteomics; transcriptomics; cone snail venom; Conus imperialis conopeptide; conotoxin; mass spectrometry; venom transcriptome; 454 sequencing; iTRAQ; proteomics; transcriptomics; cone snail venom; Conus imperialis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Jin, A.-H.; Dutertre, S.; Dutt, M.; Lavergne, V.; Jones, A.; Lewis, R.J.; Alewood, P.F. Transcriptomic-Proteomic Correlation in the Predation-Evoked Venom of the Cone Snail, Conus imperialis. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 177.

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