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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030168

Hydrophilic Glycoproteins of an Edible Green Alga Capsosiphon fulvescens Prevent Aging-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Suppressing GSK-3β-Mediated ER Stress in Dorsal Hippocampus

Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan 46041, Korea
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Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. We previously found that Capsosiphon fulvescens (C. fulvescens) crude proteins enhance spatial memory by increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated whether the chronic oral administration of hydrophilic C. fulvescens glycoproteins (Cf-hGP) reduces aging-induced cognitive dysfunction by regulating ER stress in the dorsal hippocampus. The oral administration of Cf-hGP (15 mg/kg/day) for four weeks attenuated the aging-induced increase in ER stress response protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the synaptosome of the dorsal hippocampus; this was attenuated by the function-blocking anti-BDNF antibody (1 μg/μL) and a matrix metallopeptidase 9 inhibitor 1 (5 μM). Aging-induced GRP78 expression was associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) (Tyr216)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which was downregulated upon Cf-hGP administration. The Cf-hGP-induced increase in GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation was downregulated by inhibiting tyrosine receptor kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 with cyclotraxin-B (200 nM) and SL327 (10 μM), respectively. Cf-hGP administration or the inhibition of ER stress with salubrinal (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased aging-induced spatial memory impairment. These findings suggest that the activation of the synaptosomal BDNF-ERK1/2 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus by Cf-hGP attenuates age-dependent ER stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; Capsosiphon fulvescens; cognitive dysfunction; endoplasmic reticulum stress; glycoproteins aging; Capsosiphon fulvescens; cognitive dysfunction; endoplasmic reticulum stress; glycoproteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Oh, J.H.; Nam, T.-J. Hydrophilic Glycoproteins of an Edible Green Alga Capsosiphon fulvescens Prevent Aging-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Suppressing GSK-3β-Mediated ER Stress in Dorsal Hippocampus. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 168.

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