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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030146

Comparison of the Sulfonamide Inhibition Profiles of the α-Carbonic Anhydrase Isoforms (SpiCA1, SpiCA2 and SpiCA3) Encoded by the Genome of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

1
Istituto di Bioscienze e Biorisorse, National Research Council (CNR), Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Napoli, Italy
2
Dipartimento Neurofarba, Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Nutraceutiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via U. Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Marine Biology, Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 Quai Antoine 1, 98000 Monaco, Monaco
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrase in Marine Organism)
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Abstract

The ubiquitous metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are responsible for the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate (HCO3) and protons (H+). Bicarbonate may subsequently generate carbonate used in many functional activities by marine organisms. CAs play a crucial role in several physiological processes, e.g., respiration, inorganic carbon transport, intra and extra-cellular pH regulation, and bio-mineralization. Multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms exist in the organisms. Recently, 16 α-CA isoforms have been identified in the coral Stylophora pistillata. Here, we focalized the interest on three coral isoforms: SpiCA1 and SpiCA2, localized in the coral-calcifying cells; and SpiCA3, expressed in the cytoplasm of the coral cell layers. The three recombinant enzymes were heterologously expressed and investigated for their inhibition profiles with sulfonamides and sulfamates. The three coral CA isoforms differ significantly in their susceptibility to inhibition with sulfonamides. This study provides new insights into the coral physiology and the comprehension of molecular mechanisms involved in the bio-mineralization processes, since CAs interact with bicarbonate transporters, accelerating the trans-membrane bicarbonate movement and modulating the pH at both sides of the plasma membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrases; sulfonamides; CA isoforms; biomineralization; corals CAs; recombinant enzyme carbonic anhydrases; sulfonamides; CA isoforms; biomineralization; corals CAs; recombinant enzyme
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Del Prete, S.; Bua, S.; Alasmary, F.A.S.; AlOthman, Z.; Tambutté, S.; Zoccola, D.; Supuran, C.T.; Capasso, C. Comparison of the Sulfonamide Inhibition Profiles of the α-Carbonic Anhydrase Isoforms (SpiCA1, SpiCA2 and SpiCA3) Encoded by the Genome of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 146.

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