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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020095

Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Attenuates Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Subcellular Skin Dysfunction

1
School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract

The skin, the largest organ in humans, is exposed to major sources of outdoor air pollution, such as fine particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5). Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a marine-based compound, possesses multiple activities including antioxidant effect. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of DPHC on PM2.5-induced skin cell damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that DPHC blocked PM2.5-induced reactive oxygen species generation in human keratinocytes. In addition, DPHC protected cells against PM2.5-induced DNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy. HR-1 hairless mice exposed to PM2.5 showed lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and increased epidermal height, which were inhibited by DPHC. Moreover, PM2.5 induced apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expression; however, these changes were attenuated by DPHC. MAPK inhibitors were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these actions, and the results demonstrated that MAPK signaling pathway may play a key role in PM2.5-induced skin damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: diphlorethohydroxycarmalol; human keratinocytes; PM2.5; skin cell damage; MAPK diphlorethohydroxycarmalol; human keratinocytes; PM2.5; skin cell damage; MAPK
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Zhen, A.X.; Piao, M.J.; Hyun, Y.J.; Kang, K.A.; Madushan Fernando, P.D.S.; Cho, S.J.; Ahn, M.J.; Hyun, J.W. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Attenuates Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Subcellular Skin Dysfunction. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 95.

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