Next Article in Journal
Four New Isocoumarins and a New Natural Tryptamine with Antifungal Activities from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Botryosphaeria ramosa L29
Previous Article in Journal
Antiviral Activity of a Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) NK-Lysin Peptide by Inhibition of Low-pH Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from Marine Microorganisms and Their Synthetic Derivatives
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020086

Molecular Networking-Based Analysis of Cytotoxic Saponins from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

1
Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar-Jerib Ave., 81746 73461 Isfahan, Iran
3
Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [2182 KB, uploaded 1 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

The saponin composition of a specimen of black sea cucumber, Holothuria atra collected in the Persian Gulf was studied by a combined approach including LC-MS/MS, Molecular Networking, pure compound isolation, and NMR spectroscopy. The saponin composition of Holothuria atra turned out to be more complex than previously reported. The most abundant saponins in the extract (14) were isolated and characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. Compound 1 was identified as a new triterpene glycoside saponin, holothurin A5. The side chain of the new saponin 1, unprecedented among triterpene glycosides, is characterized by an electrophilic enone function, which can undergo slow water or methanol addition under neutral conditions. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 14, evaluated on the human cervix carcinoma HeLa cell line, was remarkable, with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 2.5 µg/mL. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea cucumbers; holothurians; saponins; triterpene glycosides; LC-MS/MS; molecular networking; cytotoxic activity sea cucumbers; holothurians; saponins; triterpene glycosides; LC-MS/MS; molecular networking; cytotoxic activity
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grauso, L.; Yegdaneh, A.; Sharifi, M.; Mangoni, A.; Zolfaghari, B.; Lanzotti, V. Molecular Networking-Based Analysis of Cytotoxic Saponins from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 86.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top