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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020101

Isolation and Structure-Activity Relationship of Subergorgic Acid and Synthesis of Its Derivatives as Antifouling Agent

1
National Engineering Research Center of Navel Orange, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000, China
2
Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510000, China
3
College of Life Science and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Modification of Marine Natural Products)
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Abstract

In this study, as part of our continuous search for environmentally-friendly antifoulants from natural resources, subergorgic acid (SA) was identified from the gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa, demonstrating non-toxic, significant inhibitory effects (EC50 1.25 μg/mL, LC50 > 25 μg/mL) against the settlement of Balanus amphitrite. To further explore the bioactive functional groups of SA and synthesize more potent antifouling compounds based on the lead SA, the structure-activity relationships of SA were studied, followed by rational design and synthesis of two series of SA derivatives (one being benzyl esters of SA and another being SA derivatives containing methylene chains of various lengths). Our results indicated that (1) both the double bond and ketone carbonyl are essential elements responsible for the antifouling effect of SA, while the acid group is not absolutely necessary for maintaining the antifouling effect; (2) all benzyl esters of SA displayed good antifouling effects (EC50 ranged from 0.30 to 2.50 μg/mL) with the most potent compound being 5 (EC50 0.30 μg/mL, LC50 > 25 μg/mL), which was over four-fold more potent than SA; and (3) the introduction of a methylene chain into SA reduces the antifouling potency while the length of the methylene chain may differently influence the antifouling effect, depending on the functional group at the opposite site of the methylene chain. Not only has this study successfully revealed the bioactive functional groups of SA, contributing to the mechanism of SA against the settlement of B. amphitrite, but it has also resulted in the identification of a more potent compound 5, which might represent a non-toxic, high-efficiency antifoulant. View Full-Text
Keywords: subergorgic acid; antifouling; Balanus amphitrite; structure-activity relationship subergorgic acid; antifouling; Balanus amphitrite; structure-activity relationship
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, J.; Ling, W.; Yang, Z.; Liang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Guo, C.; Wang, K.; Zhong, B.; Xu, S.; Xu, Y. Isolation and Structure-Activity Relationship of Subergorgic Acid and Synthesis of Its Derivatives as Antifouling Agent. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 101.

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