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Open AccessArticle

Marine Bacteria from Rocas Atoll as a Rich Source of Pharmacologically Active Compounds

1
Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo/SP, Brazil
2
NPPNS, Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto/SP, Brazil
3
Departamento do Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo/SP, Brazil
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Departamento de Oceanografia Biológica, Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-120 São Paulo/SP, Brazil
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Departamento de Ciências do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 11015-020 Santos/SP, Brazil
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Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo/SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors with equal contribution.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120671
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
Rocas Atoll is a unique environment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, hosting a large number of endemic species, however, studies on the chemical diversity emerging from this biota are rather scarce. Therefore, the present work aims to assess the metabolomic diversity and pharmacological potential of the microbiota from Rocas Atoll. A total of 76 bacteria were isolated and cultured in liquid culture media to obtain crude extracts. About one third (34%) of these extracts were recognized as cytotoxic against human colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cell line. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses revealed that the bacteria producing cytotoxic extracts were mainly from the Actinobacteria phylum, including Streptomyces, Salinispora, Nocardiopsis, and Brevibacterium genera, and in a smaller proportion from Firmicutes phylum (Bacillus). The search in the spectral library in GNPS (Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking) unveiled a high chemodiversity being produced by these bacteria, including rifamycins, antimycins, desferrioxamines, ferrioxamines, surfactins, surugamides, staurosporines, and saliniketals, along with several unidentified compounds. Using an original approach, molecular networking successfully highlighted groups of compounds responsible for the cytotoxicity of crude extracts. Application of DEREPLICATOR+ (GNPS) allowed the annotation of macrolide novonestimycin derivatives as the cytotoxic compounds existing in the extracts produced by Streptomyces BRB-298 and BRB-302. Overall, these results highlighted the pharmacological potential of bacteria from this singular atoll. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondary metabolites; microbial diversity; metabolomics; molecular network; marine bacteria secondary metabolites; microbial diversity; metabolomics; molecular network; marine bacteria
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Velasco-Alzate, K.Y.; Bauermeister, A.; Tangerina, M.M.P.; Lotufo, T.M.C.; Ferreira, M.J.P.; Jimenez, P.C.; Padilla, G.; Lopes, N.P.; Costa-Lotufo, L.V. Marine Bacteria from Rocas Atoll as a Rich Source of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 671.

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