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Open AccessArticle

Unraveling the Detoxification Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Marine-Derived Mesophotic Symbiotic Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates

1
Industrial Biotechnology & Biocatalysis Group, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 14561 Kifissia, Greece
3
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, ICSN, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
4
iMare Natural S.L., 18600 Granada, Spain
5
Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
6
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
7
Division of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, Department of Pharmacy, University of Athens, 15771 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100564
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 24 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
Chlorophenols (CPs) are environmental pollutants that are produced through various anthropogenic activities and introduced in the environment. Living organisms, including humans, are exposed to these toxic xenobiotics and suffer from adverse health effects. More specifically, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is released in high amounts in the environment and has been listed as a priority pollutant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Bioremediation has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to conventional remediation methods for the detoxification of phenolic compounds. In this work, we studied the potential of fungal strains isolated as symbionts of marine invertebrates from the underexplored mesophotic coral ecosystems. Hence, the unspecific metabolic pathways of these fungal strains are being explored in the present study, using the powerful analytical capabilities of a UHPLC-HRMS/MS. The newly identified 2,4-DCP metabolites add significantly to the knowledge of the transformation of such pollutants by fungi, since such reports are scarce. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenol; bioremediation; marine-derived fungi; invertebrate symbionts; mesophotic zone; metabolite analysis; HRMS/MS 2,4-dichlorophenol; bioremediation; marine-derived fungi; invertebrate symbionts; mesophotic zone; metabolite analysis; HRMS/MS
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Nikolaivits, E.; Agrafiotis, A.; Termentzi, A.; Machera, K.; Le Goff, G.; Álvarez, P.; Chavanich, S.; Benayahu, Y.; Ouazzani, J.; Fokialakis, N.; Topakas, E. Unraveling the Detoxification Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Marine-Derived Mesophotic Symbiotic Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 564.

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