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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(8), 283;

Photosynthetic Accumulation of Lutein in Auxenochlorella protothecoides after Heterotrophic Growth

1,4,* and 1,*
Key Laboratory of Industrial Biocatalysis (Ministry of Education) and Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center (BIOPIC), School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China
Center for Synthetic Biology Engineering Research, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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In order to enhance lutein accumulation and to explain the reasons for the difference in lutein accumulation under photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, different culture modes and the associated transcriptome profiles were investigated in Auxenochlorella protothecoides. The heterotrophic-photoautotrophic transition culture mode was investigated for lutein accumulation, changing from organic carbon to increase biomass in dark fermentation to irradiation under nitrogen rich conditions. This strategy increased the lutein content 10 times along with chloroplast regeneration and little biomass loss in 48 h. The highest lutein productivity and production in the heterotrophic-photoautotrophic transition culture reached 12.36 mg/L/day and 34.13 mg/L respectively within seven days. Furthermore, compared to the photoautotrophic conditions, most genes involved in lutein biosynthesis and photosystem generation were down-regulated during heterotrophic growth. By contrast, two β-ring hydroxylases were transiently upregulated, while violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase were mostly downregulated, which explained the extremely low lutein content of heterotrophic cells. Nevertheless, the lutein proportion in total carotenoids reached nearly 100%. This study is the first to our knowledge to report on a comparative transcriptome analysis of lutein biosynthesis, and it provides a promising strategy to boost lutein production in A. protothecoides. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; lutein; two-stage cultivation; heterotrophic-photoautotrophic transition; comparative transcriptomics microalgae; lutein; two-stage cultivation; heterotrophic-photoautotrophic transition; comparative transcriptomics

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Xiao, Y.; He, X.; Ma, Q.; Lu, Y.; Bai, F.; Dai, J.; Wu, Q. Photosynthetic Accumulation of Lutein in Auxenochlorella protothecoides after Heterotrophic Growth. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 283.

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