The increase of many deadly diseases like infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria implies re-inventing the wheel on drug discovery. A better comprehension of the metabolisms and regulation of diseases, the increase in knowledge based on the study of disease-born microorganisms’ genomes, the development of more representative disease models and improvement of techniques, technologies, and computation applied to biology are advances that will foster drug discovery in upcoming years. In this paper, several aspects of current methodologies for drug discovery of antibacterial and antifungals, anti-tropical diseases, antibiofilm and antiquorum sensing, anticancer and neuroprotectors are considered. For drug discovery, two different complementary approaches can be applied: classical pharmacology, also known as phenotypic drug discovery, which is the historical basis of drug discovery, and reverse pharmacology, also designated target-based drug discovery. Screening methods based on phenotypic drug discovery have been used to discover new natural products mainly from terrestrial origin. Examples of the discovery of marine natural products are provided. A section on future trends provides a comprehensive overview on recent advances that will foster the pharmaceutical industry.
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