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Open AccessArticle

Microbial Degradation of Amino Acid-Containing Compounds Using the Microcystin-Degrading Bacterial Strain B-9

1
Graduate School of Environmental and Human Science, Meijo University, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan
3
Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Shimomachiya, Chigasaki, Kanagawa 253-0087, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020050
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
Strain B-9, which has a 99% similarity to Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans strain Y2, is a Gram-negative bacterium with potential for use in the degradation of microcystin-related compounds and nodularin. We attempted to extend the application area of strain B-9 and applied it to mycotoxins produced by fungi. Among the tested mycotoxins, only ochratoxin A was completely hydrolyzed to provide the constituents ochratoxin α and l-phenylalanine, and levels of fumonisin B1 gradually decreased after 96 h. However, although drugs including antibiotics released into the aquatic environment were applied for microbial degradation using strain B-9, no degradation occurred. These results suggest that strain B-9 can only degrade amino acid-containing compounds. As expected, the tested compounds with amide and ester bonds, such as 3,4-dimethyl hippuric acid and 4-benzyl aspartate, were readily hydrolyzed by strain B-9, although the sulfonamides remained unchanged. The ester compounds were characteristically and rapidly hydrolyzed as soon as they came into contact with strain B-9. Furthermore, the degradation of amide and ester compounds with amino acids was not inhibited by the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), indicating that the responsible enzyme was not MlrC. These results suggest that strain B-9 possesses an additional hydrolytic enzyme that should be designated as MlrE, as well as an esterase. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin-degrading bacteria; mycotoxin; protease; esterase; inhibitor microcystin-degrading bacteria; mycotoxin; protease; esterase; inhibitor
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Jin, H.; Hiraoka, Y.; Okuma, Y.; Hashimoto, E.H.; Kurita, M.; Anas, A.R.J.; Uemura, H.; Tsuji, K.; Harada, K.-I. Microbial Degradation of Amino Acid-Containing Compounds Using the Microcystin-Degrading Bacterial Strain B-9. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 50.

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