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Open AccessReview

Mixtures of Lipophilic Phycotoxins: Exposure Data and Toxicological Assessment

1
Toxicology of Contaminants Unit, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, ANSES, 35300 Fougères, France
2
Marine Biotoxins Unit, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, ANSES, 94706 Maisons-Alfort, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020046
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)
Lipophilic phycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by phytoplanktonic species. They accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish and can cause human intoxication. Regulatory limits have been set for individual toxins, and the toxicological features are well characterized for some of them. However, phycotoxin contamination is often a co-exposure phenomenon, and toxicological data regarding mixtures effects are very scarce. Moreover, the type and occurrence of phycotoxins can greatly vary from one region to another. This review aims at summarizing the knowledge on (i) multi-toxin occurrence by a comprehensive literature review and (ii) the toxicological assessment of mixture effects. A total of 79 publications was selected for co-exposure evaluation, and 44 of them were suitable for toxin ratio calculations. The main toxin mixtures featured okadaic acid in combination with pectenotoxin-2 or yessotoxin. Only a few toxicity studies dealing with co-exposure were published. In vivo studies did not report particular mixture effects, whereas in vitro studies showed synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on the combinations that are the most reported, further investigations on mixture effects must be carried out. View Full-Text
Keywords: phycotoxins; mixtures; exposure; toxicological assessment phycotoxins; mixtures; exposure; toxicological assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alarcan, J.; Biré, R.; Le Hégarat, L.; Fessard, V. Mixtures of Lipophilic Phycotoxins: Exposure Data and Toxicological Assessment. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 46.

AMA Style

Alarcan J, Biré R, Le Hégarat L, Fessard V. Mixtures of Lipophilic Phycotoxins: Exposure Data and Toxicological Assessment. Marine Drugs. 2018; 16(2):46.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alarcan, Jimmy; Biré, Ronel; Le Hégarat, Ludovic; Fessard, Valérie. 2018. "Mixtures of Lipophilic Phycotoxins: Exposure Data and Toxicological Assessment" Mar. Drugs 16, no. 2: 46.

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