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Open AccessArticle

Proteomic Analyses of the Unexplored Sea Anemone Bunodactis verrucosa

CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, 4450-208 Porto, Portugal
Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Department of Experimental and Clinical Peptide Chemistry, Hanover Medical School (MHH), Feodor-Lynen-Straße 31, D-30625 Hannover, Germany
Division of Cell Biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde- i3S, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Ipatimup, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Rua Júlio Amaral de Carvalho, 45, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Department of Pathology and Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 42;
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cnidarian toxic products, particularly peptide toxins, constitute a promising target for biomedicine research. Indeed, cnidarians are considered as the largest phylum of generally toxic animals. However, research on peptides and toxins of sea anemones is still limited. Moreover, most of the toxins from sea anemones have been discovered by classical purification approaches. Recently, high-throughput methodologies have been used for this purpose but in other Phyla. Hence, the present work was focused on the proteomic analyses of whole-body extract from the unexplored sea anemone Bunodactis verrucosa. The proteomic analyses applied were based on two methods: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF and shotgun proteomic approach. In total, 413 proteins were identified, but only eight proteins were identified from gel-based analyses. Such proteins are mainly involved in basal metabolism and biosynthesis of antibiotics as the most relevant pathways. In addition, some putative toxins including metalloproteinases and neurotoxins were also identified. These findings reinforce the significance of the production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins by sea anemones, which play a significant role in defense and feeding. In general, the present study provides the first proteome map of the sea anemone B. verrucosa stablishing a reference for future studies in the discovery of new compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cnidarian; sea anemone; proteins; toxins; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; MALDI-TOF/TOF; shotgun proteomic cnidarian; sea anemone; proteins; toxins; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; MALDI-TOF/TOF; shotgun proteomic
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Domínguez-Pérez, D.; Campos, A.; Alexei Rodríguez, A.; Turkina, M.V.; Ribeiro, T.; Osorio, H.; Vasconcelos, V.; Antunes, A. Proteomic Analyses of the Unexplored Sea Anemone Bunodactis verrucosa. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 42.

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