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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120496

Spirulina maxima Decreases Endothelial Damage and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Patients with Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Results from Exploratory Controlled Clinical Trial

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
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Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract

(1) Background: Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has shown beneficial effects such as being anti-dyslipidemic, antiviral, antioxidant and antihypertensive. However, there are few and limited clinical studies. (2) Methods: a prospective, randomized, parallel pilot study of 4.5 g administration of Spirulina maxima or placebo for 12 weeks in 16 patients with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors was performed to assess the effects on endothelial damage and oxidative stress indicators. The blood levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, endothelin-1, and sE-selectin were quantified; the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and concentrations of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were also quantified before and after the treatment period. (3) Results: There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in systolic blood pressure, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and endothelin-1 levels, and increases in glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione levels. (4) Conclusion: The effects found in the present study agree with antihypertensive and antioxidant effects previously reported for Spirulina maxima. However, this is the first report about the effects on indicators of endothelial damage. More research in this field is necessary to gain an insight into the effects of Spirulina on these indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arthrospira maxima; antioxidant; cardiovascular; nutraceutical; systolic blood pressure Arthrospira maxima; antioxidant; cardiovascular; nutraceutical; systolic blood pressure
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Martínez-Sámano, J.; Torres-Montes de Oca, A.; Luqueño-Bocardo, O.I.; Torres-Durán, P.V.; Juárez-Oropeza, M.A. Spirulina maxima Decreases Endothelial Damage and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Patients with Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Results from Exploratory Controlled Clinical Trial. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 496.

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