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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100354

Role of Mitochondria in Regulating Lutein and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under Heterotrophic Conditions

1,2,3,†
,
4,†
,
5
,
1,2,3,* and 6,*
1
Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
2
International Research Center for Marine Biosciences, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
3
National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
4
College of Basic Science, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China
5
College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
6
Runke Bioengineering Co. Ltd., Zhangzhou, Fujian 363503, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract

The green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa can accumulate lutein and chlorophyll under heterotrophic conditions. We propose that the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain (mRET) may be involved in this process. To verify this hypothesis, algal cells were treated with different mRET inhibitors. The biosynthesis of lutein and chlorophyll was found to be significantly stimulated by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas their contents substantially decreased after treatment with antimycin A and sodium azide (NaN3). Proteomic studies revealed profound protein alterations related to the redox and energy states, and a network was proposed: The up-regulation of peroxiredoxin reduces oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetic acid to phosphoenolpyruvate, and after entering the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1yl diphosphate synthase reduces 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (ME-Cpp) to 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate (HMBPP), which is closely related to the synthesis of lutein; and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase and ChlI play important roles in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. These results supported that for the heterotrophic C. pyrenoidosa, the signaling, oriented from mRET, may regulate the nuclear genes encoding the enzymes involved in photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain; mitochondrial retrograde regulation; redox state; energy metabolism; proteomics mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain; mitochondrial retrograde regulation; redox state; energy metabolism; proteomics
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Liu, Z.-H.; Li, T.; He, Q.-Y.; Sun, Z.; Jiang, Y. Role of Mitochondria in Regulating Lutein and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under Heterotrophic Conditions. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 354.

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