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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 266;

Mini-Review: Antifouling Natural Products from Marine Microorganisms and Their Synthetic Analogs

2,3,6,* and 1,*
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresource & Eco-environmental Science, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education of China, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266200, China
The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518033, China
Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Postdoctoral research station, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antifouling Marine Natural Products)
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Biofouling causes huge economic loss and generates serious ecological issues worldwide. Marine coatings incorporated with antifouling (AF) compounds are the most common practices to prevent biofouling. With a ban of organotins and an increase in the restrictions regarding the use of other AF alternatives, exploring effective and environmentally friendly AF compounds has become an urgent demand for marine coating industries. Marine microorganisms, which have the largest biodiversity, represent a rich and important source of bioactive compounds and have many medical and industrial applications. This review summarizes 89 natural products from marine microorganisms and 13 of their synthetic analogs with AF EC50 values ≤ 25 μg/mL from 1995 (the first report about marine microorganism-derived AF compounds) to April 2017. Some compounds with the EC50 values < 5 μg/mL and LC50/EC50 ratios > 50 are highlighted as potential AF compounds, and the preliminary analysis of structure-relationship (SAR) of these compounds is also discussed briefly. In the last part, current challenges and future research perspectives are proposed based on opinions from many previous reviews. To provide clear guidance for the readers, the AF compounds from microorganisms and their synthetic analogs in this review are categorized into ten types, including fatty acids, lactones, terpenes, steroids, benzenoids, phenyl ethers, polyketides, alkaloids, nucleosides and peptides. In addition to the major AF compounds which targets macro-foulers, this review also includes compounds with antibiofilm activity since micro-foulers also contribute significantly to the biofouling communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifouling; biofouling; marine microorganisms; marine natural products antifouling; biofouling; marine microorganisms; marine natural products

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Wang, K.-L.; Wu, Z.-H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, C.-Y.; Xu, Y. Mini-Review: Antifouling Natural Products from Marine Microorganisms and Their Synthetic Analogs. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 266.

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