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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 173;

Marine Sponges and Bacteria as Challenging Sources of Enzyme Inhibitors for Pharmacological Applications

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli, Italy
Bio-Organic Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry-CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 Naples, Italy
Unità di Farmacologia Sperimentale, Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Department of Integrative Marine Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, CNR, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Enzymes play key roles in different cellular processes, for example, in signal transduction, cell differentiation and proliferation, metabolic processes, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and response to stress. A deregulation of enzymes has been considered one of the first causes of several diseases, including cancers. In the last several years, enzyme inhibitors, being good candidates as drugs in the pathogenic processes, have received an increasing amount of attention for their potential application in pharmacology. The marine environment is considered a challenging source of enzyme inhibitors for pharmacological applications. In this review, we report on secondary metabolites with enzyme inhibitory activity, focusing our attention on marine sponges and bacteria as promising sources. In the case of sponges, we only reported the kinase inhibitors, because this class was the most representative isolated so far from these marine organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzyme inhibitors; sponges; bacteria enzyme inhibitors; sponges; bacteria

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Ruocco, N.; Costantini, S.; Palumbo, F.; Costantini, M. Marine Sponges and Bacteria as Challenging Sources of Enzyme Inhibitors for Pharmacological Applications. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 173.

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