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Open AccessReview

Structure and Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides

Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Molinaro
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4217-4230;
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipopolysaccharides)
PDF [1453 KB, uploaded 7 July 2015]


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of mainly Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. The LPS molecules from marine and terrestrial bacteria show structural variations, even among strains within the same species living in the same environment. Cyanobacterial LPS has a unique structure, since it lacks heptose and 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (also known as keto-deoxyoctulosonate (KDO)), which are present in the core region of common Gram-negative LPS. In addition, the cyanobacterial lipid A region lacks phosphates and contains odd-chain hydroxylated fatty acids. While the role of Gram-negative lipid A in the regulation of the innate immune response through Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 4 signaling is well characterized, the role of the structurally different cyanobacterial lipid A in TLR4 signaling is not well understood. The uncontrolled inflammatory response of TLR4 leads to autoimmune diseases such as sepsis, and thus the less virulent marine cyanobacterial LPS molecules can be effective to inhibit TLR4 signaling. This review highlights the structural comparison of LPS molecules from marine cyanobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. We discuss the potential use of marine cyanobacterial LPS as a TLR4 antagonist, and the effects of cyanobacterial LPS on humans and marine organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: LPS; endotoxin; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; TLR; lipid A; sepsis LPS; endotoxin; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; TLR; lipid A; sepsis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Durai, P.; Batool, M.; Choi, S. Structure and Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 4217-4230.

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