Next Article in Journal
Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay
Next Article in Special Issue
Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge
Previous Article in Journal
Structure of an Amino Acid-Decorated Exopolysaccharide Secreted by a Vibrio alginolyticus Strain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga—Competition or Allelopathy?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6740-6758;

Seasonal Changes in Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Production Rate with Respect to Natural Phytoplankton Species Composition

Division of Polar Ocean Environment, Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840, Korea
Department of Marine Sciences and Convergent Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, Korea
Environmental Measurement & Analysis Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-708, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michèle Prinsep
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 7 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
Full-Text   |   PDF [417 KB, uploaded 9 November 2015]   |  


After in situ incubation at the site for a year, phytoplanktons in surface water were exposed to natural light in temperate lakes (every month); thereafter, the net production rate of photoprotective compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs) was calculated using 13C labeled tracer. This is the first report describing seasonal variation in the net production rate of individual MAAs in temperate lakes using a compound-specific stable isotope method. In the mid-latitude region of the Korean Peninsula, UV radiation (UVR) usually peaks from July to August. In Lake Paldang and Lake Cheongpyeong, diatoms dominated among the phytoplankton throughout the year. The relative abundance of Cyanophyceae (Anabaena spiroides) reached over 80% during July in Lake Cheongpyeong. Changes in phytoplankton abundance indicate that the phytoplankton community structure is influenced by seasonal changes in the net production rate and concentration of MAAs. Notably, particulate organic matter (POM) showed a remarkable change based on the UV intensity occurring during that period; this was because of the fact that cyanobacteria that are highly sensitive to UV irradiance dominated the community. POM cultured in Lake Paldang had the greatest shinorine (SH) production rate during October, i.e., 83.83 ± 10.47 fgC·L−1·h−1. The dominance of diatoms indicated that they had a long-term response to UVR. Evaluation of POM cultured in Lake Cheongpyeong revealed that there was an increase in the net MAA production in July (when UVR reached the maximum); a substantial amount of SH, i.e., 17.62 ± 18.34 fgC·L−1·h−1, was recorded during this period. Our results demonstrate that both the net production rate as well as the concentration of MAAs related to photoinduction depended on the phytoplankton community structure. In addition, seasonal changes in UVR also influenced the quantity and production of MAAs in phytoplanktons (especially Cyanophyceae). View Full-Text
Keywords: chlrophyll (chl) a; lake; mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs); phytoplankton; ultraviolet radiation (UVR) chlrophyll (chl) a; lake; mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs); phytoplankton; ultraviolet radiation (UVR)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, S.-Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, M.-S.; Kumar, K.S.; Shin, K.-H. Seasonal Changes in Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Production Rate with Respect to Natural Phytoplankton Species Composition. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6740-6758.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top