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Open AccessArticle

Seasonal Changes in Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Production Rate with Respect to Natural Phytoplankton Species Composition

Division of Polar Ocean Environment, Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), 26 Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840, Korea
Department of Marine Sciences and Convergent Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, Korea
Environmental Measurement & Analysis Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-708, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michèle Prinsep
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6740-6758;
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 7 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
After in situ incubation at the site for a year, phytoplanktons in surface water were exposed to natural light in temperate lakes (every month); thereafter, the net production rate of photoprotective compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs) was calculated using 13C labeled tracer. This is the first report describing seasonal variation in the net production rate of individual MAAs in temperate lakes using a compound-specific stable isotope method. In the mid-latitude region of the Korean Peninsula, UV radiation (UVR) usually peaks from July to August. In Lake Paldang and Lake Cheongpyeong, diatoms dominated among the phytoplankton throughout the year. The relative abundance of Cyanophyceae (Anabaena spiroides) reached over 80% during July in Lake Cheongpyeong. Changes in phytoplankton abundance indicate that the phytoplankton community structure is influenced by seasonal changes in the net production rate and concentration of MAAs. Notably, particulate organic matter (POM) showed a remarkable change based on the UV intensity occurring during that period; this was because of the fact that cyanobacteria that are highly sensitive to UV irradiance dominated the community. POM cultured in Lake Paldang had the greatest shinorine (SH) production rate during October, i.e., 83.83 ± 10.47 fgC·L−1·h−1. The dominance of diatoms indicated that they had a long-term response to UVR. Evaluation of POM cultured in Lake Cheongpyeong revealed that there was an increase in the net MAA production in July (when UVR reached the maximum); a substantial amount of SH, i.e., 17.62 ± 18.34 fgC·L−1·h−1, was recorded during this period. Our results demonstrate that both the net production rate as well as the concentration of MAAs related to photoinduction depended on the phytoplankton community structure. In addition, seasonal changes in UVR also influenced the quantity and production of MAAs in phytoplanktons (especially Cyanophyceae). View Full-Text
Keywords: chlrophyll (chl) a; lake; mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs); phytoplankton; ultraviolet radiation (UVR) chlrophyll (chl) a; lake; mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs); phytoplankton; ultraviolet radiation (UVR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, S.-Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, M.-S.; Kumar, K.S.; Shin, K.-H. Seasonal Changes in Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Production Rate with Respect to Natural Phytoplankton Species Composition. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 6740-6758.

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