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Article

A Lower Level of Post-Vaccinal Antibody Titer against Influenza Virus A H1N1 May Protect Patients with Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases from Respiratory Viral Infections

1
Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Military Medical Academy, Crnotravska 17, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Institute for Educational Research, Dobrinjska 11/III, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Centre “Bezanijska Kosa”, Dr Žorža Matea bb, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emanuel Della-Torre
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010076
Received: 1 December 2021 / Revised: 23 December 2021 / Accepted: 29 December 2021 / Published: 4 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
Background and Objectives: The concentration of antibodies against virus influenza A H1N1 in the titer (≥1:32) positively correlates with resistance to flu in healthy persons. In elderly and immune-compromised patients, an influenza vaccine may be less immunogenic. Hypothesis: A lower post-vaccinal antibody titer (≥1:16) may be sero-protective against respiratory viral infections in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus—24; Rheumatoid Arthritis—15; and Sjögren’s Syndrome—11), who were at least 65 years old or whose relative disease duration (disease duration/age) was greater than 1/8, were examined. Thirty-four of them were vaccinated with a trivalent inactivated non-adjuvant influenza vaccine. The antibody concentration against influenza virus A H1N1 was measured using the standardized hemagglutination inhibition test and patients who got any respiratory viral infection were registered. To test the hypothesis, a correlative analysis was applied, followed by a binary logistic regression that included potential confounding variables, such as age, disease duration and therapy (personal/health-related conditions). Results: Vaccinated patients were significantly less affected by respiratory viral infections (21% vs. 75%). The lower titer considered (≥1:16) was significantly present more often among vaccinated patients (68% vs. 6%). The correlation between its presence/absence and that of respiratory viral infections was –0.34 (p < 0.05). The binary logistic regression evidenced the relevance of this correlation, confirming the hypothesis. Vaccination was associated with the 87.3% reduction in the likelihood of getting respiratory viral infections, whereas the lower antibody titer (≥1:16) was associated with the 77.6% reduction in the likelihood of getting respiratory viral infections. The vaccine was well tolerated by all patients and after vaccination no exacerbation of the underlying disease was observed. Conclusions: A lower antibody titer (≥1:16) against influenza virus A H1N1 could be protective against respiratory viral infections for certain autoimmune rheumatic diseases patients, which confirms the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmune rheumatic diseases; clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination; personal/health-related conditions; respiratory viral infections; sero-protective titer autoimmune rheumatic diseases; clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination; personal/health-related conditions; respiratory viral infections; sero-protective titer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Milanovic, M.S.; Kadijevich, D.M.; Stojanovich, L.; Milovanovic, B.; Djokovic, A. A Lower Level of Post-Vaccinal Antibody Titer against Influenza Virus A H1N1 May Protect Patients with Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases from Respiratory Viral Infections. Medicina 2022, 58, 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010076

AMA Style

Milanovic MS, Kadijevich DM, Stojanovich L, Milovanovic B, Djokovic A. A Lower Level of Post-Vaccinal Antibody Titer against Influenza Virus A H1N1 May Protect Patients with Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases from Respiratory Viral Infections. Medicina. 2022; 58(1):76. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milanovic, Milomir S., Djordje M. Kadijevich, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Branislav Milovanovic, and Aleksandra Djokovic. 2022. "A Lower Level of Post-Vaccinal Antibody Titer against Influenza Virus A H1N1 May Protect Patients with Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases from Respiratory Viral Infections" Medicina 58, no. 1: 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010076

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